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Science Terms

Heredity The passing of traits from parent to offspring.
Alleles An alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait: Can be dominate or recessive.
Genetics The study of how traits are inherited through the action of alleles.
Hybrid An offspring that was given different genetic information for a trait from each parent.
Dominate Describes a trait that covers over, or "dominates" another form of that trait.
Recessive Describes a trait that is covered over, or dominated, by another form of that trait and seems to disappear.
Punnett square A tool to predict the probability of certain traits in an offspring that shows the different ways alleles can combine.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism.
Phenotype Outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism as a result of its genotype.
Homozygous Describes an organism with 2 alleles that are the same for a trait.
Heterozygous Describes an organism with 2 different alleles for a trait.
Incomplete Dominance Production of a phenotype that is intermediate between the 2 homozygous parents.
Polygenic Inheritance Occurs when a group of genes pairs acts together and produces specific traits, such as human eye color, skin color, or height.
Sex-Linked Gene An allele inherited on sex chromosome and that can cause human genetic disorders such as color blindness and hemophilia.
Genetic Engineering Biological and chemical methods to change the arrangements of a genes DNA to improve crop production, produce large volumes.