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Unit 6 Lesson #4 -5

Heredity and Punnett Squares & Pedigrees

QuestionAnswer
dominant traits contributes to the phenotype if one or two copies are present in the genotype
recessive traits contributes to the phenotype only when TWO copies of it are present
If dominant and recessive genes cross for many generations what will the outcome be in the offspring? heterozygous organism
chromosomes the chromatin is compacted into visible structures
genes segments of DNA found in chromosomes that give instructions for producing a certain characteristic
genotype the combination of alleles that you inherited from your parents
phenotype your observable traits
capital letters represent Dominant
lower case letters represent recessive
allele one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
codominance both of the alleles in a heterozygous individual contribute to the phenotype. instead of a blend of the two phenotypes, both traits are associated with their two alleles (ex: human blood type)
incomplete dominance each allele in a heterozygous individual influences the phenotype. Result= blend of the parents. example: hair texture (1 straight + 1 curly = wavy)
complete dominance one trait is completely over another ex: dominant alleles: tongue rolling, dimples
acquired characteristics traits that are learned in ones environment. ex: ability to read and write, ride a bike.
inherited characteristics each parent gives ONE SET of genes to offspring, the offspring then has two forms of the same gene for every characteristic - one from each parent
What is a punnett square and why do we use them a graphic used to predict the possible genotypes of offspring in a given cross
What is a ratio? How is it expressed? an expression that compares two quantities. It's expressed by showing there is a ____ chance the offspring will have ____ . Ex: 100% blue eyes, also expressed by a ratio
What is a probability? How is it expressed? mathematical chance of a specific outcome in relation to the total number of possible outcomes, they are also expressed by a ratio
What is a pedigree and why do we use them? a tool used to study patterns of inheritance. They are useful in tracing a special class of inherited disorders known as sex-linked disorders.
What does it mean if you are a "carrier of a disease" ? it is usually women, and they are called the carrier because she can carrie or pass on the trait to her offspring
sex linked genes they are physical traits that were passed down from the parents ex: eye, hair color, freckles
be able to read pedigree flow chart and analyze it square -male, circle- female, half shaded- carrier, shaded- inherited trait
Created by: ineyhart