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MMS Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
volcano A landform that allows magma from below the Earth's crust to come up to the surface
active volcano Volcano that is erupting or has erupted in recorded history or shows signs that it might erupt
Dormant volcano A volcano that has not erupted for at least 10,000 years but that might erupt again
Extinct volcano A volcano that has erupted but is not likely to erupt ever again
Crust Top layer of the earth, solid material, made of the continental and oceanic crust. Thinnest and coolest layer of the earth
Mantle 2nd layer of the earth, a mixture of solid rock and molten rock called lava. Hotter than the crust, not as hot as the core
Lithosphere The crust and upper mantle. Solid material, makes up the plates that move around the earth
Core Inner part of the earth. Made of the inner and outer cores
Outer Core Just below the mantle, liquid, and hotter than the mantle
Inner Core The center of the earth. Solid and the hottest part of the earth
Pangea The name for all the continents when they were still 1 land mass
Continental Drift The theory that the continents moved away from each other into the form we now see
plates A large section of the earth's surface
plate tectonics The theory that the outer section of the earth's surface (the crust and upper mantle) are broken into sections called plates. Each plate moves in a specific direction at a specific speed. When plates collide, rub, or spread, volcanoes, earthquakes happen
Convergent When two tectonic plates run into each other, causing earthquakes, mountain formation, and/or volcanoes. Crust is destroyed and melted back into the mantle.
Divergent When two tectonic plates move away from each other, allowing magma to come to the surface as lava and create volcanoes and mountains. A valley, or rift is also created. Crust is created as magma rises and cools as new crust.
Transform When two tectonic plates rub against each other creating earthquakes.
Subduction When two tectonic plates converge (run into each other), one plate will "sink" under the other plate.
convection currents currents (due to heat) of magma flowing in the mantle that move the tectonic plates
lava magma (molten rock) that has erupted onto the earth's surface
shield volcano large, broad volcanoes that release fast-moving lava and are less explosive that other volcanoes. (Example: Mt. Bachelor in Oregon)
cinder cone Smallest and most common volcano, formed from explosive eruptions that shoot magma and ash into the air. As the magma falls to earth and cools, it forms the cinder cone (Example: Mt. Etna in Italy)
Composite volcano (stratovolcano) Explosive eruption, formed from layers of lava and ash (Example: Mt. St. Helens in Washington)
Created by: cvanwyk