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Earth in Universe

Earth in the Universe/Space Race

TermDefinition
Rotation The spinning motion of a planet on its axis
Revolution The movement of an object around another object. One complete __________ of Earth around the sun is called a year.
Axis An imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the North and South poles, about which Earth rotates
Galaxy A huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity
Solar System the collection of eight planets and their moons in orbit around the sun, together with smaller bodies in the form of asteroids, meteoroids, and comets.
Planet a celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit around a star.
Atmosphere the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.
Satellite (natural) an object that revolves around another object in space.
Seasons each of the four divisions of the year marked by particular weather patterns and daylight hours, resulting from the earth's changing position with regard to the sun.
Solstice The two days of the year on which the sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator
Equinox The two days of the year on which neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun
Orbit The path of an object as it revolves around another object in space
Equator the line of latitude in the middle of the globe at 0 degrees/it divides the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Hemisphere a half of the earth, usually as divided into northern and southern halves by the equator, or into western and eastern halves by an imaginary line passing through the poles.
Counter-Clockwise in the opposite direction to the way in which the hands of a clock move around.
Low Latitude The tropics
Middle Latitude All four seasons
High Latitude Polar Zones
Gravity The attractive forces between objects; its strength depends on their masses and the distance between them
Isaac Newton English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1642-1727)
Force A push or pull exerted on an object
Mass The amount of matter in an object
Weight A measure of the force of gravity acting on an object
Inertia The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Newton’s First Law of Motion An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
Waxing a gradual process of growth and development by the moon.
Waning the act of showing a gradually decreasing portion of illuminated surface, between full moon and new moon
Gibbous the act of showing a gradually decreasing portion of illuminated surface, between full moon and new moon
Crescent appears to be less than half of the moon lit up by the sun.
Telescope a device built to observe distant objects by making them appear closer.
Asteroids rocky objects revolving around the sun that are too small and numerous to be considered planets
Meteors a streak of light in the sky produced by the burning of a meteoroid in Earth’s atmosphere
Comet a loose collection of ice, dust and rocky particles, typically with a long, narrow orbit.
Lunar Eclipse an eclipse in which the moon appears darkened as it passes into the earth's shadow.
Solar Eclipse an eclipse in which the sun is obscured by the moon
Umbra The darkest part of a shadow
Penumbra The part of the shadow surrounding the darkest part
Tides The periodic rise and fall of the level of water in the ocean
Space Probe an unmanned exploratory spacecraft designed to transmit information about its environment.
Satellite (artificial) an artificial body placed in orbit around the earth or moon or another planet in order to collect information or for communication.
Geosynchronous Orbit an orbit in which a satellite orbits the Earth at the same rate as the Earth rotates and thus stays over the same place all the time