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# Science Heat and the

What is heat? Heat is the transfer of energy from the particles of a warmer object to the particles of a cooler object.
How does a game of billiards help to explain heat? While the fast moving white cue ball collides with a stationary ball and transfers energy to it. The white cue ball slows down and the stationary ball starts to move. To heat an object is to transfer energy to the particles of that object
What is temperature? Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance.
What is thermal energy? Thermal energy is the total kinetic energy and energy of attraction of all the particles.
In what direction does thermal energy naturally flow? Thermal energy naturally moves from a substance with a higher temperature to a substance with a lower temperature.
What is conduction and how is it caused? Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy through a substance, or between substances in contact. Conduction is caused by the collision of particles
What natural processes depend on conduction? Thermal energy from deep within the earth is conducted through the matter in the upper layers. This energy is called geothermal energy. It helps form rocks and minerals. This is the formation of igneous, metamorphic rock and diamonds
What is convection? Convection is the transfer of thermal energy from one part of a fluid to another by a circulating current of faster moving and slower moving particles.
Explain how convection causes soup to cook. The water particles near the bottom go faster/further apart. The bottom particles become less dense than the top particles. The colder soup at the top is more dense and sinks to the bottom of the pot. The warm soup moves to the top and replaces the cold.
What natural causes depend on convection? Wind, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes and volcanic eruptions of the earths crust all depend on convection.
What is radiant energy? Radiant energy is energy that travels in the form of electromagnetic waves through empty space.
What are the two factors that determined whether the sun's radiant energy is reflected or absorbed? The two factors are the colour and the texture of the objects.
Do darker or lighter surfaces absorb radiant energy better? Darker surfaces absorb radiant energy better than lighter or shiny surfaces.
Why is insulation important? Insulation is important because insulators slow energy transfer by limiting conduction, convection or both.
What is a thermal envelope? Thermal envelope is the materials that separate a building from the outside.
What parts of the house are part of of the thermal envelope? The thermal envelope includes the walls, doors, roofs, finishes, insulation, weather stripping, windows, and air/vapor barriers
Why is a thermal envelope important for building designers? Because building designers try to stop energy loss through the thermal envelope.
What parts of the house should be insulated to prevent the loss of energy? The basement walls, outside walls and roofs.
What do R-values of insulation material indicate? R-values indicate the materials ability to resist heat transfer.
What does a higher number in the R-value mean? The higher the number, the better the insulation.
Why is air such a good insulator? Air is gas. Its particles are far apart. Air does not transfer energy as well as other materials, also conduction and convection are slower in air.
use your knowledge of air and insulators to explain how animals keep warm. Think about fur, wool and feathers. They all have air pockets, and they keep animals warm.
Besides reducing energy loss, what are three advantages of a green roofs? Green roofs last a long time, can make air better to breath and people also enjoy these roofs.
What is the main purpose of an air-to-air exchanger? An air-to-air heat exchanger trades air inside and outside of a building without losing energy.
Why do builders use special windows containing low E glass? Low E glass keeps radiant energy inside in the winter and outside in the summer. Because low E windows also help heating and cooling costs down.
Created by: areese2695

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