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KPHS-Chapter 11-11.2 = Mendel

What is genetics? Page 309 It is the scientific study of heredity. It is the key to understanding what makes each organism unique.
Who founded genetics? It was founded by an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel. He was born in 1822 in what is now the Chezh Republic. He studied at the University of Vienna.
What is sperm? The male reproductive cells.
What are eggs? The female reproductive cells.
What is fertilization? When male and female reproductive cells join to produce a new cell.
What is a trait? It is a specific characteristic such as seed color, plant height of an individual.
What is a hybrid? It is a cross between parents with different traits.
What is "P" and "F1"? Page 310 When doing genetic crosses, we call each original pair of plants the "P" or parental generation. Their offspring are called F1 or first filial, generation. "Filius" is Latin for son. "filia" is Latin for daughter.
What was Mendel's F1 hybrid plants like? What is F2? For each trait he studied, all the offspring had the characteristics of only one of its parents. The trait of the other parent seemed to have disappeared. When you cross the original offspring they product F2 offspring.
What is the key idea for Mendels studies? An individual's characteristics are determined by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next.
What are genes? Scientists call the factors that are passed from parent to offspring "genes."
What are "alleles"? They are different forms of a gene. You can have Dominant and Recessive Alleles.
What are Dominant and Recessive Alleles(genes)? Dominant=stronger gene. Recessive=weaker gene.
What was Medel's "principle of dominance"? This principle states that some alleles are dominant allele(genes) and others are recessive.
When will the dominant or recessive gene show itself? When the "dominant " allele(gene) is present it will show in the offspring. When it is not present the "recessive"(weaker) allele(gene) will not show. Even if it does not show in the offspring, the recessive gene is still present in the offspring.
How are different forms of the gene distributed to offspring? Roughly one fourth of the time the "recessive"(weaker) gene showed in the offspring.
What happened when Mendel crossed the "f1" offspring with each other? They produce F2 off spring and he noticed that 1/4 (one fourth) of the time the "recessive" allele (gene) appeared.
What is segregation? 312 It is separation.
What is gametes? They are the sex cells of the plant.
What did Mendel determine from his studies/experiment of P, F1, F2? He determined that during the gamete(sex cell) formation, the alleles(dominate or recessive trait) for each gene segregate(separate) from each other, so that each gamete carries only one allele for each gene. See 312 picture.
What is the probability? It is the likelihood that a particular event will occur. Flip a coin. What is chance of heads or tails? one in two chance or 1/2 or 50% of the time heads, 1/2 or 50% of the time tails. If you flip it 3 times you have 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/8
Do alleles split evenly? 314 They split in a random manner but "probability" can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses.
What is homozygous? Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular gene - TT or tt.
What is heterozygous? Organisms that have two different alleles for the same gene - Tt
What is phenotype? Physical traits.
What is genotype? Genetic makeup.
What is a Punnett square? 315 Punnett squares use mathematical probability to help predict the genotype and phenotype combinations in genetic crosses.
How do alleles segregate when more than one gene is involved? Genes that segregate independently (such as the genes for seed shape and seed color is pea plants) do not influence each other's inheritance.
What is independent assortment? 317 The principle of independent assortment states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes(sex cells.)
What is a principle of heredity? (1) The inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by individual units called genes, which pass from parents to offspring.
What is a principle of heredity? (2) Where two or more forms (alleles or different forms of a gene) for a single trait exist, some alleles may be dominate and others may be recessive.
What is a principle of heredity? (3) On most sexually reproducing organisms, each adult has two copies of each gene - one from each parent. These genes segregate from each other when gametes are formed.
What is a principle of heredity? (4) Alleles for different genes usually segregate independently of each other.
Created by: WTR11754



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