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Invasive Therapy

Fluid Balance unit

What is homeostasis The bodies state of equilibrium
What are solutes Particles.. or electrolytes and non-electrolytes
What is the most important nutrient? WATER
What maintains blood volume? WATER
What aids in digestion? WATER
What regulates our body temperature WATER
Which solutes have an electrical charge to them? Electrolytes
1 Kg of body weight equals.... 2.2 pounds
What type of patients do you need to monitor weight for a potential increase? Cardiac and Renal patients as it indicates fluid gain
What does the lab value of a BUN indicate? The hydration status of the body
Concentration, tonicity, and osmolarity basically have the same meaning. What is the definition? It is determined by the number of particles dissolved in a solution. It is an indicator of body hydration.
What is the osmolarity of ICF and ECF? 300
What is passive transport? Give one example. No energy is needed to transport particles between the semipermeable membranes. Examples are Osmosis, Diffusion, and filtration.
What is the definition of Osmosis? This is the movement of FLUID from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of greater solute concentration.
What is the definition of Diffusion? This is the movement of SOLUTES from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
What is Isotonic A solution with the same osmolarity/tonicity as the interior of the cell
What will a hypotonic solution do? It will increase the cell's volume because this solution has a lesser concentration of solutes than the cell's interior. This is because with osmosis the fluid goes from less to more.
What will a hypertonic solution do? It will decrease the cell's volume because the solution has a greater concentration of solutes than the cell's interior. Again, because with osmosis the fluid goes from less to more.
What does the Adrenal gland regulate? It regulates the secretion of aldosterone and this regulates the sodium and potassium balance
What are sensible losses? These are fluid losses that can be measured. Examples: urine, secretion of drainage tubes, emesis.
What are insensible losses? These are fluid losses that CAN NOT be measured. Examples: fluid loss in feces, fever, respirations, perspiration.
What are some signs and symptoms of Extracellular fluid volume excess (circulatory overload)? ACute weight gain, increased edema, increased JVD, S.O.B., tachypnea, crackles, increased B/P, bounding pulse, decreased oxygen saturations.
What are some TREATMENTS/INTERVENTIONS for Extracellular fluid volume excess (circulatory overload)? Monitor VS, Monitor Lung sounds, Strict I&O, fluid restrictions, hourly foley outputs, oxygen, diuretics, daily weights,
What are some signs are symptoms of hypovolemia? (Extracellular deficit) Change in mental status, Anxiety, restlessness, THIRST, tachycardia, delayed capillary refill, orthostatic B/P, decreased urinary output, WEAK or thready pulses, INCREASED HCT, BUN, and Urine specific gravity.
What are some TREATMENTS/INTERVENTIONS for hypovolemia? Watch VS and mental status for improvement, oxygen, Isotonic IV solutions, monitor I&O, hourly urine outputs, daily weights, assess peripheral pulses, change positions slowly
Changes in which of the major intracellular cations will affect cardiac function? Potassium (K+)
What is the normal serum value for K+? 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
What assessment is vital to do when your patient has an abnormal K+ level? Cardiac assessment (specifically for dysrhythmias)
What is the normal serum value for Ca+? 8.4-10.5 mg/dl
What is necessary for Ca+ absorption from the GI tract? Vitamin D
Describe Chvosek's sign Tapping of the facial nerve which would elicit twitching of the face/mouth area when calcium levels are LOW.
Describe Trousseau's sign Inflating of B/P cuff for a minute or two which will elicit a spasm of the fingers and hand when calcium levels are LOW.
How does AGE affect our Fluid and Electrolyte balance? Elderly take longer to corect F&E imbalances due to decrease in kidney perfusion/function. They also have a lower consumption of food, dietary restrictions and decrease thirst or water intake.
During your assessment, what is the best indicator for fluid balance? Weight! :)
What are some signs of F&E imbalances with your assessment? Edema, JVD, dry mucous membranes, increase in abdominal girth, urine output less than 30ml/hr
What does poor skin turgor indicate and how do you complete this assessment? Pinch the skin up, and if it tents up the patient is probably dehydrated.
List DESIRABLE outcomes for fluid balance. Balanced I&O, Urine output greater than 30/hr, moist mucous membranes, no tenting or edema, electrolytes WDL, 2+ peripheral pulses, B/P WDL, no weight gain or loss, no elevation in temperature.
Created by: znajdaka