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# Science - Heat 7B

### Science Test - Heat January 2017

What is heat? The transfer of energy from the particles of a warmer object to the particles of a cooler object
How does a game of billiards help to explain heat? (DIAGRAM) Fast moving white cue ball collides with stationary ball & transfers energy to it. The white ball slows down & the stationary ball starts to move.
What is temperature? A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance.
What is thermal energy? total kinetic energy & energy of attraction of all the particles of a material THERMAL ENERGY = TOTAL KINETIC ENERGY + ENERGY OF ATTRACTION
What is kinetic energy? The energy that all moving objects possess.
Explain how changes of state involve changes in thermal energy? (DIAGRAM) Motion of the particles of a substance (their kinetic energies) & their attraction for each other determines whether something is a solid, liquid or gas.
In what direction does thermal energy flow naturally? Naturally moves from a substance with a higher temperature to a substance with a lower temperature.
What is conduction? The transfer of thermal energy through a substance or between a substance in contact.
How is conduction caused? By the collision of particles.
Explain how conduction causes and egg to cook in a fry pan (DIAGRAM) Energy from burner travels through pan into egg. Particles of pan collide with particles of egg causing egg's particles to move faster. Faster motion causes temperature of egg to rise.
What naturel processes are affected by conduction? Thermal energy from deep within the Earths conducted thru matter in upper layers. This energy is called GEOTHERMAL ENERGY. It helps form rocks & minerals. Formation of igneous and metamorphic rock and diamonds results from conduction.
What is convection? The transfer of thermal energy from one part of a fluid to another by a circulating current of faster-moving and slower-moving particles
Explain how convection causes soup to cook on a stove. soup is heated, water particles near the bottom move faster/further apart. Bottom particles become less dense than top. Colder, more dense soup near top sinks to bottom. Warm/less dense moves to top & replaces cold soup. This creates a convection current
What natural processes depend on convection? Wind, thunderstorms and the volcanic eruptions of the Earth's Crust all depend on convection.
What is radiant energy? Energy that travels in the form of electromagnetic waves through empty space
What are some examples of Radiant Energy? Visible light. Ultraviolet rays. Infrared rays.
What 2 factors determine whether the Sun's radiant energy is reflected or absorbed? The colour and texture of objects.
Do darker of lighter surfaces absorb radiant energy better? Darker colours absorb radiant energy better than light colours or shiny surfaces.
Why is insulation important? Insulators slow energy transfer by limiting conduction, convection or both.
What is a Thermal Envelope? Materials that separate a building from the outside.
What parts of the house are a part of the Thermal Envelope? Walls. Doors. Roof. Finishes. Insulation. Weather stripping. Windows. Air/Vapour barriers.
Why is a Thermal Envelope important for building designers? So they can try to stop energy loss through the thermal envelope.
What parts of the house should be insulated to prevent the loss of energy? Basements. Outside walls. Roof. Areas that separate heated from unheated spaces.
What do R-values of insulation material indicate? They indicate the material's ability to resist heat transfer.
What does a higher number in the R-value mean? The higher the number the better the insulation.
Why is AIR such a good insulator? Air is a gas. Particles are far apart. Air does not transfer energy as well as other materials. Conduction and Convection are slower in the air.
With your knowledge of air and insulators explain how animals keep warm. Materials that are thick and have small air pockets are good insulators. Fur, wool and feathers all have air pockets and keep animals warm.
Besides reducing energy loss, what are the three advantages of a green roof? *They last a long time. *They make the air better to breathe. *People can enjoy these roofs.
What is the main purpose of an AIR-TO-AIR Exchanger? To trade air inside and outside of a building without losing energy. It can also use energy from the outgoing air to heat the incoming fresh air, making the incoming fresh air warm by the time it reaches the inside of the building.
Why do buildings use special windows containing "Low-E" glass? Windows lose radiant energy. Builders use special windows with Low-E (low emissivity) glass, which keeps radiant energy inside in winter and outside in summer. This keeps heating/cooling costs down.
Created by: cianieri