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What is asexual reproduction? Reproduction that produces offspring that are identical to the original cell or organism and involves inheritance of all genes from one parent.
How similar are the offspring and the parent in asexual reproduction? Identical
What is sexual reproduction? Reproduction that produces offspring that are similar to the parents, but show variations in traits and involves inheritance or unique sets of genes from two parents.
How similar are the offspring and the parent in sexual reproduction? Similar to the parents but have variations.
How do the two forms of reproduction differ? Asexual Reproduction- does not need a mate and they clone themselves, quicker. Sexual Reproduction- does need a mate and they don't clone themselves.
What is the major advantage of sexual reproduction? That we are all different, we have variation.
Describe the process of budding. During the process of budding, offspring develop as an extension of some part of the parent, then the extension breaks off and forms a new clone of the parent.
Describe the process of regeneration. The ability to develop lost body parts or even to form new individuals from a single parent.
Describe what spores are and how they are used for reproduction. Spores fall from the plant and land in the ground then if the ground is favorable for the plant to grow, the spore will grow into a small plant, and that small plant will drop pollen and eggs to create the plant. Seed that already contains all the genes.
Describe what vegetative propagation is. A plant sends out runners & when the runners hit fertile soil a new identical plant is made
Describe the process of binary fission. Chromosomes duplicate, both attach to cell membrane, new cell membrane forms, forced apart, chromosome & cell split.
What does haploid mean? half of the normal amount of chromosomes, humans 23, one set of chromosomes
What does diploid mean? normal amount of chromosomes, humans 46, two sets of homologous chromosomes
If an organism has a diploid number of 22, what is the haploid number? 11
How many chromosomes are in a somatic cell with a haploid number of 11? 22
How many chromosomes will be in a gamete cell with a diploid number of 22? 11
What occurs during Interphase? The cytoplasm contents double, two centrosomes form, chromosomes duplicate in the nucleus during this phase.
What is the purpose of Meiosis I? To split the homologous pairs.
What occurs during Prophase I? Chromosomes coil and become compact, homologous chromosomes come together as pairs, each pair with four chromatids is called a tetrad, nonsister chromatids exchange genetic material by crossing over, nucleus disappears.
What occurs during Metaphase I? Tetrads align at the cell equator.
What occurs during Anaphase I? Homologous pairs separate and move toward opposite poles of the cell.
What occurs during Telophase I? Duplicated chromosomes have reached the poles, nuclear envelope reforms around each set of chromosomes, each nucleus has the haploid number of chromosomes.
What is the purpose of Meiosis II? To split the sister chromatids.
What occurs during Prophase II? Chromosomes coil and become compact, nuclear envelope breaks up again.
What occurs during Metaphase II? Sister chromatids align at the cell equator.
What occurs during Anaphase II? Sister chromatids separate, chromosomes move toward opposite poles.
What occurs during Telophase II? Duplicated chromosomes have reached the poles, nuclear envelope reforms around each set of chromosomes, with cytokinesis, four haploid cells are produced.
Why isn't there an interphase II in meiosis? The DNA would duplicate again undoing everything we did in meiosis I.
What is crossing over? Crossing over is an exchange of corresponding segments between nonsister chromatids on homologous chromosomes. Homologous pairs trading equal amounts of DNA.
When does crossing over occur? Prophase I
What is the name of the site where the chromosomes cross over? Chiasma
What are homologous chromosomes? Chromosomes that are matched in length, centromere position, & gene location. Same genes but diffrent versions
What is a locus? The position of a gene
How is meiosis different from mitosis? The end products. Mitosis produces two genetically identical diploid somatic daughter cells. Meiosis produces four genetically unique haploid gametes, used homologous chromosomes.
How is meiosis similar to mitosis? Both begin with diploid parent cells that have chromosomes duplicated during the previous interphase, both a form of cell division.
How many chromosomes does a human sperm or egg cell have? 23
Why is the number of chromosomes in gametes different then the number of chromosomes in other cells? Because the sperm and eggs combine together to create a zygote which has 46 chromosomes.
Is 23 chromosomes in a human the haploid or diploid number? Haploid number
What is a gamete? Reproduction cells
What is a somatic cell? Every other cell (46 chromosomes in humans)
How do the chromosome numbers differ between a gamete and a somatic cell? Gamete Cells have 23 chromosomes, Somatic Cells have 46 chromosomes.
What is a Zygote? A zygote is a diploid chromosome (23 from each parent), Cell from fertilization.
In meiosis, one cell splits into how many? 1 to 4
What is meiosis in women? Females: Don't finish meiosis unless there is fertilization, produces polar bodies because then need to put extra care into one egg. have every egg they are ever going to have, paused in Prophase I until puberty, then paused in metaphase II every 28 days.
What is meiosis in men? Males: Start at puberty and never stop produce four sperm cells.
What is a polar body? A small egg cell that is not taken care of and dies
What are the three main ways of producing genetic variation in a gamete? Independent orientation at metaphase I, Random fertilization, Crossing over
Describe what nondisjunction is. The failure of chromosomes or chromatids to separate normally, during meiosis (both meiosis I or meiosis II). Biggest factor is age
Describe what Independent Orientation is. Each pair of chromosomes independently aligns at the cell equator, an equal probability of the maternal or paternal chromosomes facing the given pole, the number of combinations for chromosomes packaged into gametes.
Describe what Random Fertilization is. The combination of each unique sperm with each unique egg increases genetic variability.
Created by: Elise.Postma