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Chapter 17:Blood

Blood definitions

Intravascular Fluid compartment that exists within blood vessels
Interstitial Fluid compartment in microscopic spaces between tissue cells
Intracellular Fluid compartment within cells
Blood The life sustaining transport vehicle of the cardiovascular system
Plasma Nonliving substance that makes up the matrix of blood
Hematocrit Precent of blood volume that is RBC's
Buffy coat Thin, whitish layer between RBC's and plasma layer in a spun tube of blood, made of WBC's and platelets
Plasma proteins Most abundant type of solutes in plasma
Albumin Plasma protein that maintains osmotic pressure and fluid balance
Fibrinogen Blood clotting plasma protein that is converted to insoluble fibrin threads
Thrombin Converts Fibrinogen to Fibrin
Globulins Plasma proteins with the least percentage
Alpha and Beta Globulins Plasma proteins that transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins in blood
Gamma Globulins Plasma protein that is produced by the lymphoid tissue and are also known as immunoglobulins
Plasma Liquid minus blood cells
Serum Liquid minus blood cells and clotting factors
Formed Elements RBC's, WBC's and Platelets
Erythrocytes Small in diameter, biconcave enucleate discs that are important in gas exchange
Hemoglobin This consists of red heme pigment bound to the protein globin
Globin Composed of 2 alpha and 2 beta polypeptide chains
Heme pigment element that is bonded to each global chain that gives blood the red colour
Hemoglobin HB
Oxyhemoglobin Ruby read complex when Hemoglobin is loaded with oxygen
Deoxyhemoglobin Dark red "unloaded" Hemoglobin
Carbaminohemoglobin When Carbon dioxide combines with hemoglobin
Hematopoiesis The formation of all blood cells
Hemocytoblasts Hematopoietic stem cells
Hematopoietic stem cells Givre rise to all formed elements
Erythropoiesis The production of red blood cells
Myeloid stem cell Hematopoietic stem cell that transforms into a reticulocyte
reticulocyte Immature erythrocyte
Hypoxia Not enough oxygen
Erythropoietin Hormone that stimulates the formation of RBC's
Ferritin Iron cells are stored in cells as this
Bilirubin breakdown of heme forms this yellow pigment
Anemia Condition in which blood has abnormal low oxygen capacity
Polycythemia a disease state where hematocrit is >55%, causing sluggish blood flow and clotting
Blood doping when athletes remove, store and rein fuse RBC's before an event to increase O2 levels for stamina
Leukocytes formed element that makes up ,1% of total blood volume, has the only complete cell with a nucleus/organelles
Diapedesis the passage of blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation.
Chemotaxis movement of a motile cell or organism, or part of one, in a direction corresponding to a gradient of increasing or decreasing concentration of a particular substance.
Leukocytosis an increase in the number of white cells in the blood, especially during an infection.
Granulocytes WBC's that contain visible cytoplasmic granules
Agranulocytes WBC's that do not contain visible cytoplasmic granules
Neutrophils, Lympocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
Granulocytes WBC's that contain lobed circular nuclei and are phagocytic
Neutrophils WBC's that contain hydrolytic enzymes defensives, nucleus has 3-6 lobes and have a lifespan of hours-days
Defensins antimicrobial proteins that are released from neutrophils to destroy bacteria
Eosinophils WBC's that has a 2 lobed nucleus connected by a broad band, lines respiratory and digestive tracts, plays a role in allergies and asthma and as well as immune response and protecting against parasites
Basophils Rarest WBC's
Basophils WBC's that have a deep purple nucleus, contains histamines and secretes heparin
Histamine an inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator and attracts WBC's to inflamed sites
Heparin Anticoagulant
Lymphocytes WBC that has circular nuclei and are crucial to immunity
T cells Lymphocytes that act against virus-infected cells and tutor cells
B cells Lymphocytes that give rise to plasma cells which produce antibodies/immunogoblins
Monocytes Largest of all leukocytes, pale blue cytoplasm and a kidney-shaped nuclei, very motile and phagocytic differentiate into macrophages, activate lymphocytes
Leukopoiesis Production of WBC's
Lymphoid stem cells Producer of lymphocytes
Myeloid stem cells Produce all elements of WBCS besides lymphocytes
Leukemias a leukocyte disorder in which there is too many immature cells
Mononucleuosis a leukocyte disorder in which lymphocytes look like monocytes
Leukopenia a leukocyte disorder in which body is different of WBC's
Platelets (thrombocytes) Develop from hemocytoblasts in red bone marrow
Platelets Cell fragments that form a temporary plug to seal breaks in blood vessels
Hemostasis Fast series of reactions for stopping bleeding
Vascular spasm the vessels response to injury with vasoconstriction
Platelet plug formation Platelets stick to collagen fibres that are exposed
Coagulation Blood clotting
coagulation factors Proteins I - XIII, calcium and Vitamin K
Intrinsic pathway Pathway where clotting factors are present within the blood
Extrinsic pathway the faster pathway where factors needed for clotting are located outside the blood
Prothrombinase Prothrombin activator is also known as ________
Prothrominase Factor X combines with Calcium to form this
Common pathway this pathway causes prothrombinase to convert prothrombin
prothrombin to thrombin On the common pathway prothrombinase converts _____ -> _______
Thrombin Converts fibrinogen to fibrin
Fibrinogen Soluble protein
Fibrin Insoluble protein that forms structural basis of clot
Factor XIII Factor that strengths and stablizises clot
Thrombin and Calcium Activates factor XIII
Anticoagulation against clotting
Heparin Prevents thrombin from clotting, therefore inhibiting the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
Fibrinolysis Process whereby clots are removed after repair is complete
Plasminogen A plasma protein that is converted to plasmin
Plasmin A fibrin digesting enzyme "clot buster"
Whole blood transfusion transfusion used only when blood loss is rapid and substatial
Packed red blood cells PRBC's
PRBC's Blood with plasma and WBC's removed
Cross match Trefers to the test that is performed prior to a blood transfusion in order to determine if the donor's blood is compatible with the blood of an intended recipient.
Antigen A substance that causes the formation of an antibody, "flags"
Antibodies element in blood plasma that reacts with specific blood antigens
Transfusion reactions Occur when blood that is infused is mismatched, results in donor cells being attacked by recipients plasma agglutinins
Type O- Universal donor
Type AB+ Universal recipient
Type A Has only A agglutinogens
Type B Has only B agglutinogens
Type AB Has both A and B agglutinogens
Type O Has neither agglutinogens
Antigen D Rh blood group
Rh+ blood Rh antigens present on RBC membranes no agglutinins
Rh- blood No Rh antigens are present on RBC membranes
Eythroblastosis fetalis Hemolytic disease of newborn occurring when mother is Rh- and baby is Rh+
RhoGAM immune globulin is a medication used to prevent Rh isoimmunization in mothers who are Rh negative, given during the 2nd trimester and 48 hours after birth
Differential WBC count Diagnostic test that looks at relative proportions of each WBC
CBC complete blood count Diagnostic test that checks formed elements, hematocrit and hemoglobin
Created by: abbymurphy97