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Hi Yield goljan pt2

Brain atrophy ischemia; Alzheimer’s
Exocrine gland atrophy in CF duct obstruction by thick secretions
Labile cells stem cells (skin, marrow, GI tract) →←→⇦
Stable cells in G0 phase (smooth muscle, hepatocytes); can enter cell cycle (growth factors, hormones)
Permanent cells cannot replicate; cardiac/striated muscle; neurons
Hypertrophy increase in cell size (structural components, DNA)
LVH increased preload (valve regurgitation), increased afterload (hypertension, aortic stenosis)
RVH pulmonary hypertension
Bladder smooth muscle hypertrophy prostate hyperplasia constricts urethra
Removal of kidney hypertrophy of remaining kidney
Hyperplasia increase in number of cells
Endometrial hyperplasia unopposed estrogen (obesity, taking estrogen)
RBC hyperplasia increased EPO (blood loss, ectopic secretion, high altitude)
Prostate hyperplasia increased dihydrotestosterone (DHEA)
Gynecomastia hyperplasia male breast tissue; normal in newborn, adolescent, elderly
Metaplasia one adult cell type replaces another cell type
Squamous metaplasia in bronchus smoking
Intestinal metaplasia in stomach Paneth cells, goblet cells; H pylori chronic atrophic gastritis
Squamous metaplasia bladder Schistosoma hematobium infection
Barrett’s esophagus glandular metaplasia of distal esophagus; due to GERD
Dysplasia atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia are precursors for cancer
Squamous dysplasia in cervix human papilloma virus
Squamous dysplasia in bronchus smoking
Necrosis death of groups of cells
Coagulation necrosis preservation of structural outline (due to ↑ lactic acid)
Infarction pale (e
Liquefactive necrosis brain infarct, bacterial infections; wet gangrene
Caseous necrosis variant coagulation necrosis; granulomas due to TB/systemic fungi
Granulomas activated macrophages (epithelioid cells); multinucleated giant cells; CD4 TH1 cells
Epithelioid cells γ-interferon released by CD4 T cells activates macrophages
Multinucleated giant cells fusion of epithelioid cells
Granulomas type IV hypersensitivity
Enzymatic fat necrosis associated with pancreatitis; soap formation (Ca2+ + fatty acids)
Fibrinoid necrosis necrosis of immune reactions (immune vasculitis/endocarditis)
Postmortem necrosis autolysis; no inflammatory reaction
Dystrophic calcification calcification of damaged tissue; normal serum calcium
Dystrophic calcification pancreatitis; atherosclerotic plaque
Metastatic calcification calcification of normal tissue; increased serum calcium or phosphorus
Nephrocalcinosis metastatic calcification of collecting tubule basement membranes
S/S nephrocalcinosis polyuria due to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; renal failure
Apoptosis gene regulated individual cell death
Signals activating apoptosis mullerian inhibitory factor, tumor necrosis factor, hormone withdrawal
Signal modulators of apoptosis TP53 suppressor gene, BCL-2 genes
BCL-2 genes anti-apoptosis gene; prevents cytochrome c from leaving mitochondria
Caspases responsible for enzymatic cell death in apoptosis; proteases and endonucleases
Markers of apoptosis eosinophilic cytoplasm, pyknotic (ink dot) nucleus
Apoptosis loss Mullerian epithelium in male fetus; thymus involution; killing cancer cells
Histamine key chemical in acute inflammation; mast cell; arteriole vasodilation; ↑ venular permeability
Rubor acute inflammation redness; arteriole vasodilation (histamine)
Calor acute inflammation heat; arteriole vasodilation (histamine)
Created by: mcafej02