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Exam 01

Orphan Drug pharmaceutical that remains commercially enveloped owing to limited potential for profitability.
What are the FDA teratogenic risk categories, and what do they represent? A: human data suggest no issues. B: animal data suggest no issues (little/no human data). C: animal data suggest possible risk (little/no human data). D: documented risk in humans; risk/benefit may allow for drug use. X: Documented, unjustified risk.
What are the controlled substance schedules, and what is an example of a drug in each? I: highest abuse potential, no accepted medical use; heroin, LSD II: high abuse potential; morphine, methylphenidate III: moderate abuse potential; codeine combos, testosterone IV: low abuse potential; benzodiazepines V: Lowest abuse potential; cough
Receptor Theory drug must bind to receptor. drug must be the right size, shape, charge, atomic composition. Must get to intended site, be metabolized, and excreted in a timely manner.
What ways can a drug act pharmacodynamically on a biological process? Speed up, slow down, or mimic.
Routes of drug administration Intravenous (IV) Oral (PO) Subcutaneous (SQ/SubQ) Topical Transdermal Inhalation/Insufflation Intramuscular (IM) Sublingual Rectal
Advantages/disadvantages of intravenous injection systemic, immediate irreversible (usually)
Advantages/disadvantages of intramuscular injection systemic, slower release than IV difficult to reverse can be painful
Advantages/disadvantages of oral medications delayed release reversible less precise than IV
bioavailability how much drug reaches systemic circulation unchanged
protein-binding affects drug distribution and efficiency. Less bound drugs are more efficient than bound drugs.
First-pass metabolism/effect process by which the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before reaching systemic circulation.
-troprium; use; ex inhaled anticholinergics asthma, COPD, prevent bronchospasm ipratroprium bromide, tiotroprium
Beta blockers; ending; use; adverse effects; ex -alol cardiac dysrhythmias, HTN bradycardia, sedation, asthma, ED propranolol, atenolol,
Alpha blockers; ending; adverse effects; ex -zosin dizziness, orthostatic HOTN Doxazosin, terazosin
Key features of Alzheimer's disease cholinergic deficiency, neurodegeneration, memory loss, delusions, hallucinations
Key features of glaucoma increased intraocular pressure
Key features of Myasthenia gravis autoimmune disease characterized by ptosis, diplopia, dysphagia, and generalized weakness.
Key features of Parkinson's disease neurodegeneration with tremors, rigidity, slowness, cognitive impairment
What are the 5 domains of CAM, and one therapy for each domain? 1) alternative medical systems 2) mind-body interventions 3) biologically-based systems 4) manipulative and body-based systems 5) energy therapies
What is a clinical use for Echinacea tx or prevention of common cold
What is a clinical use for St. Johns Wort? depression, anxiety, mood disorders
What is a clinical use for Saw Palmetto? benign prostatic hyperplasia
What is a clinical use for Ginko Biloba? prevent or treat alzheimers
What is clinical use for cranberry? bladder infections/ UTIs
What is a clinical use for Valerian? insomnia and anxiety
What are the S/Sx of a person abusing drugs? persistent abnormal vitals
Cholinergic Symptoms acronym SLUDGE Salivation Lacrimation Urination Diarrhea GI upset Emesis
Anticholinergic pneumonic can't see, can't pee, can't spit, can't shit (myopia, urinary retention, decreased secretions, GI slowing)
idiosyncratic effect rare and unpredictable reaction to a drug
iatrogenic induced inadvertently by a medical practitioner, treatment, or dx procedure
ACE inhibitors angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. (-pril). antihypertensives. prevent ACEs from converting angiotensin to angiotensin II, thereby reducing vasoconstriction and BP. ex: lisinopril, enalapril
HMG CoA reductase inhibitors antihyperlipidemics. -statin/-vastatin. disrupt the action of HMG CoA to inhibit cholesterol production. simvastatin, atorvastatin
What are the clinical features of nerve gas or pesticide poisoning? What is the antidote? nerve gases are cholinesterase inhibitors decreased HR and BP bronchospasm muscular contration runny nose vomiting incontinence ANTIDOTE: atropine
Created by: antwauhn