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Special Populations

Definitions for Special Populations Course - Blinn Paramedic

TermDefinition
diabetic ketoacidosis is a life threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the glucose they need for energy because there is note enough insulin.
distributive shock is a medical condition in which abnormal distribution of blood flow is the smallest blood vessels result in inadequate supply of blood to the body's tissues and organs
Menorrhagia A menstrual period with excessively heavy flow and falls under the larger category of abnormal uterine bleeding.
Menstruation The regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Miscarriage The natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently
Mittelschmerz Lower abdominal and pelvic pain that occurs roughly midway through a woman's menstrual cycle.
Myometrium The middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells
Obstetrics The field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
Ovulation The release of egg(s) from the ovaries.
Pelvic inflammatory disease An infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and inside of the pelvis. Causes can be a variety of agents.
Perimetrium The outermost layer that forms the external skin of the uterus.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder A severe and disabling form of premenstrual syndrome.
Premenstrual syndrome Physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the one to two weeks before a woman's menstruation.
Emergency medical services for children The Advisory Committee is responsible for advising the Health Department and its Commissioner on all aspects of emergency care for children
epiglottitis a rapidly progressive airway issue that causes inflammation of the epiglottis you can also hear stridor in the upper airway.
febrile seizures seizures that are caused by a rapid increase in temperature (normally seen in children)
foreign body airway obstruction. a partial or complete blockage of the vocal cords or trachea.
greenstick fracture a fracture in a young soft bone in which the bone bends and breaks normally looking like splinters
growth plate in a growing child this sits between the metaphysis and the epiphysis
hyperglycemia an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated with diabetes
hypoglycemia deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream
hypovolemic shock known as hemorrhagic shock, this is a life threatening condition that results when you lose more that 20% of your body's blood
Sick sinus syndrome A group of disorders characterized by dysfunction of the sinoatrial node in the heart.
Silent myocardial infarction A myocardial infarction that occurs without exhibiting obvious signs and symptoms.
Spondylosis A degeneration of the vertebral body.
Stokes-Adams syndrome A series of symptoms resulting from heart block, most commonly syncope. The symptoms result from decreased blood flow to the brain caused by the sudden decrease in cardiac output.
Stroke Injury to or death of brain tissue resulting from interruption of cerebral blood flow and oxygenation.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage Bleeding that occurs between the arachnoid and dura mater of the brain.
Substance abuse Misuse of chemically active agents such as alcohol, psychoactive chemicals, and therapeutic agents; typically results in clinically significant impairment or distress.
Tinnitus Ringing or tingling in the ear.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) Reversible interruption of blood flow to the brain; often seen as a precursor a stroke.
Two-pillow orthopnea The number of pillows - in this case, two - needed to ease the difficulty of breathing while lying down; a significant factor in assessing the level of respiratory distress.
Urosepsis Septicemia originating from the urinary tract.
Aphasia Absent or impairment of the ability to communicate through speaking, writing, or signing as a result of brain dysfunction: occurs when the individual suffers a brain injury due to stroke or a head injury and no longer has the ability to speak or read.
Colostomy A surgical diversion of the large intestine through an opening in the skin where the fecal matter is collected through a pouch; temporary or permanent.
Conductive deafness Deafness caused when transmission of the sound waves through the external ear canal to the middle or inner ear is blocked.
Deafness The inability to hear.
Diabetic Retinopathy Slow loss of vision as a result of damage done by diabetes.
Enucleation Removal of the eyeball after trauma or illness.
Glaucoma Group of eye diseases that results in increased intraocular pressure on the optic nerve; if left untreated, it can lead to blindness.
Labyrinthitis Inner ear infection that causes vertigo, nausea, and unsteady gait.
Mucoviscidosis Cystic fibrosis, so called because of the abnormally viscous mucoid secretions associated with the disease.
Neutropenia a condition that results from an abnormally low neutrophil count in the blood (less than 2,000/mm3).
Otitis Media Middle ear infection
Prebycusis Progressive hearing loss that occurs with aging.
Neonate An infant from the time of birth to 1 month of age
Ovulation The release of an egg from the ovary
Placenta The organ that serves as the lifeline for the developing fetus. The placenta is attached to the wall of the uterus and the umbilical cord.
Puerperium the time period surrounding the birth of the fetus.
Tocolysis The process of stopping labor
Umbilical cord structure containing 2 arteries and 1 vein that connects the placenta to the fetus
Acrocyanosis Cyanosis of the extremities
Antepartum Before the onset of labor
APGAR score A numerical system for rating the condition of a newborn. It evaluates the newborn's heart rate, respiration rate, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color
Birth Injury Avoidable and unavoidable mechanical and anoxic trauma incurred by the newborn during labor and delivery.
Choanal Atresia Congenital closure of the passage b/t the nose and pharynx by a bony or membranous structure.
Valsalva maneuver Forced exhalation against a closed glottis, such as with coughing. This maneuver stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system via the vagus nerve, which, in turn, slows the heart rate.
Varicosities An abnormal dilation of a vein or group of veins.
Vertigo The sensation of faintness or dizziness; may cause a loss of balance.
Bias-motivated crime A hate crime based on bias.
Chain of evidence Legally retaining items of evidence and accounting for their whereabouts at all times to prevent loss or tampering.
Child abuse Physical or emotional violence or neglect toward a person from infancy to 18 years of age.
Domestic elder abuse Physical or emotional violence or neglect when and elder is being cared for in a home-based setting.
Hate crime Crimes committed against a person solely on the basis of the individual's actual or perceived race, color, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation.
Human trafficking The trade of humans; the illegal movement of people, usually for forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation.
Institutional elder abuse Physical or emotional violence or neglect when an elder is being cared for by a person paid to provide care.
Partner abuse Physical or emotional violence from a man or woman toward a domestic partner.
Rape Penile penetration of the genitalia or rectum with-out the consent of the victim.
Sexual assault Unwanted oral, genital, rectal, or manual sexual contact.
Thyrotoxcosis toxic condition characterized by tachycardia, nervous symptoms, and rapid metabolism due to hyperactivity of the thyroid gland.
Vagal Stimulation stimulation of the vagus nerve, causing parasympathetic response.
Asthma a condition marked by recurrent attacks of dyspnea with wheezing due to spasmodic constriction of the bronchi, often as a response to allergens or to mucus plugs in the arterial walls.
Bacterial tracheitis bacterial infection of the airway, subglottic region; in children, most likely to appear after episodes of croup.
Bend fractures fractures characterized by angulation and deformity in the bone without an obvious break.
Bronchiolitis viral infection of the medium-sized airways, occurring most frequently during the first year of life.
Buckle fractures fractures characterized by a raised or bulging projection at the fracture site.
Cardiogenic shock the inability of the heart to meet the metabolic needs of the body, resulting in inadequate tissue perfusion.
Central IV line intravenous line placed into the superior vena cava for the administration of long-term fluid therapy.
Congenital present at birth
Croup larygotracheobronchitis ; a common viral infection of young children, resulting in edema in the sub-glottis tissues; characterized by barking cough and inspiratory stridor.
Noncardiogenic shock types of shock that result from causes other than inadequate cardiac output
Shunt surgical connection that runs from the brain to the abdomen for the purpose of draining excess cerebrospinal fluid, thus preventing increased ICP
Status epilepticus prolonged seizure or multiple seizures with no regaining of consciousness between them
Stoma a permanent surgical opening in the neck through which the patient breathes
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome illness of unknown etiology that occurs during the first year of life, with the peak at ages two to four months
Tracheostomy small surgical opening that a surgeon makes from the anterior neck into the trachea, held open by a metal or plastic tube
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome respiratory insufficiency marked by progressive hypoxemia due to severe inflammatory damage
Advance directive legal document prepared when a person is alive, competent, and able to make informed decisions about health care. The document provides guidelines on treatment if the person is no longer capable of making decisions
Ageism discrimination against aged or elderly people
Alzheimer's disease a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking, and behavior
Aneurysm abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery, due to a congenital defect or a weakness in the wall of the vessel
Cystitis Urinary bladder infection
Dysmenorrhea difficult or painful menstruation
Dyspareunia difficult or painful sexual intercourse
Dysuria pain or discomfort when urinating
Ectopic Pregnancy when an embryo implants somewhere other than the uterus
Endometriosis A disorder in which tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside the uterus.
Endometritis inflammatory condition of the the lining of the uterus (endometrium)
Endometrium innermost glandular layer and functions as a lining for the uterus
Gynecology branch of medicine that deals with health maintenance and diseases of women; primarily reproductive organs.
Menarche the first occurrence of menstruation, between ages 10 and 14.
Menopause the ceasing of menstruation. Typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age.
Guillain-Barre syndrome Acute viral infection that triggers the production of autoantibodies, which damage the myelin sheath covering the peripheral nerves; causes rapid, progressive loss of motor function, ranging from muscle weakness to full-body paralysis.
Hemoptysis Expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs; characterized by sudden coughing with production of salty sputum with frothy bright-red blood.
Hospice Program of palliative care and support services that address the physical, social, economic and spiritual needs of terminally ill patients and their families.
Hypertrophy an increase in the size or bulk of an organ or structure; caused by growth rather than by tumor.
Intermittent mandatory ventilation respirator setting in which a patient-triggered breath does not result in assistance by the machine.
Myasthenia gravis disease characterized by episodic muscle weakness triggered by an autoimmune attack of the acetylcholine receptors.
PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure
Postpartum depression the “let down” feeling experienced during the period following birth, occurring in 70-80 percent of mothers.
Sensorium sensory apparatus of the body as a whole; also the portion of the brain that functions as a center of sensations.
Tracheostomy small surgical opening that a surgeon makes from the anterior neck into the trachea, held open by a metal or plastic tube
Turgor ability of the skin to return to normal appearance after being subjected to pressure
Urostomy surgical diversion of the urinary tract to a stoma, or hole, in the abdominal wall
Meconium dark green material found in the intestine of the full-term newborn. It can be expelled from the intestine into the amniotic fluid during periods of fetal distress.
Meningomyelocele Herniation of the spinal cord and membranes through a defect in the spinal column.
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) A generalized disorder presenting a clinical picture of central nervous system (CNS) hyperirritability, gastrointestinal dysfunction, respiratory distress, and vague autonomic symptoms. It may be due to intrauterine exposure to heroin, methadone, or other less potent opiates. Nonopiate CNS depressants may also cause NAS.
Neonate An infant from the time of birth to one month of age.
Newborn A baby in the first few hours of its life; also called a newly born infant.
Omphalocele Congenital hernia of the umbilicus.
PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure.
Persistent Fetal Circulation Condition in which blood continues to bypass the fetal respiratory system, resulting in ongoing hypoxia.
Phototherapy Exposure to sunlight or artificial light for therapeutic purposes. In newborns, light is used to treat hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice.
Pierre Robin Syndrome Unusually small jaw, combined with a cleft palate, downward displacement of the tongue, and an absent gag reflex.
Polycythemia An excess of red blood cells. In a newborn, the condition may reflect hypovolemia or prolonged intrauterine hypoxia.
Kyphosis Exaggeration of the normal posterior curvature of the spine
Life-care community Communities that provide apartments/homes for independent living and a range of services, including nursing care. Usually the elderly own their own homes.
Maceration Process of softening a solid by soaking it in a liquid.
Marfan syndrome Hereditary condition of connective tissue, bones, muscles, ligaments, and skeletal structures characterized by irregular and unsteady gait, tall lean body type with long extremities, flat feet, and stooped shoulders. The aorta is usually dilated and may become weakened enough to allow an aneurysm to develop.
Melena A dark, tarry stool caused by the presence of "digested" free blood.
Meniere's disease A disease of the inner ear characterized by vertigo, nerve deafness, and a roar or buzzing in the ear.
Mesenteric ischemia or infarct Death of tissue in the peritoneal fold that encircles the small intestine; a life-threatening condition.
Nephrons The functional units of the kidneys.
Nocturia Excessive urination during the night.
Old-old An elderly person aged 80 or older.
Osteoarthritis A degenerative joint disease, characterized by a loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone.
Osteoporosis Softening of bone tissue due to the loss of essential minerals, principally calcium.
Parkinson's Disease Chronic, degenerative nervous disease characterized by tremors, muscular weakness and rigidity, and a loss postural reflexes. See Michael J Fox
Personal-care home Living arrangement that includes room, board, and some supervision.
Pill-rolling motion An involuntary tremor, usually in one hand or sometimes in both, in which fingers move as if they were rolling a pill back and forth.
Polycythemia An excess of red blood cells. In a newborn, the condition may reflect hypovolemia or prolonged intrauterine hypoxia.
Polypharmacy Multiple drug therapy in which there is a concurrent use of a number of drugs.
Pressure ulcer Ischemic damage and subsequent necrosis affecting the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and often the muscle; result of intense pressure over a short time or low pressure over a long time; also known as pressure sore or bedsore.
Pruritis Itching; often occurs as a symptom of some systemic change or illness.
Retinopathy Any disorder of the retina
Senile dementia General term used to describe an abnormal decline in mental functioning
Shy-Drager syndrome Chronic orthostatic hypotension caused by a primary autonomic nervous system deficiency.
Abortion Termination of pregnancy before the 20th week of gestation. The term refers to both miscarriage and induced abortion.
Afterbirth the placenta and accompanying membranes that are expelled from the uterus after the birth of a child
Amniotic Fluid Clear, watery fluid that surrounds and protects the developing fetus
Aortocaval compression Compression of the aorta and vena cava by the gravid uterus in the supine patient
Crowning The bulging of the fetal head past the opening of the vagina during a contraction; it is an indication of impending delivery
Effacement The thinning and shortening of the cervix during labor
Estimated date of confinement The approximate day the infant will be born. this date is usually set at 40 weeks after the date of the mother's last menstrual period.
Labor The time and processes that occur during childbirth; the physiologic and mechanical process in which the baby, placenta, and amniotic sac are expelled through the birth canal.
Lochia Vaginal discharge following birth that contains blood, mucus, and placental tissue
Manual Lateral Uterine Displacement The technique of cupping the uterus to lift it upward and left-ward off the maternal blood vessels.
Amniotic Sac The membranes that surround and protect the developing fetus throughout the period of intrauterine development
sensorineural deafness deafness caused by the inability of nerve impulses to reach the auditory center of the brain because of nerve damage to either the inner ear or to the brain
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
BiPAP bilevel positive airway pressure
bronchiectasis chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi, with a secondary infection typically involving the lower portion of the lung
cellulitis inflammation of cellular or connective tissue
Glomerulonephritis a form of nephritis, or inflammation of the kidneys; primarily involves the glomeruli, one of the capillary networks that are a part of the renal corpuscles in the nephrons.
Heatstroke Life threatening condition caused by a disturbance in temperature regulation; in the elderly, characterized by extreme fever and, in extreme cases, delirium or coma.
Hepatomeglaly enlarged liver
Herpes Zoster an acute eruption caused by reactivation of latent varicella virus (chickenpox) in the dorsal root ganglia; also known as shingles
Hiatal Hernia protrusion of the stomach upward into the mediastinal cavity through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.
Hypertrophy An increase in size or bulk of an organ or structure; caused by growth rather than a tumor.
Hypochondriasis An abnormal concern with one's health, with a false belief of suffering from some disease, despite medical assurances to the contrary: commonly call hypochondria
Immune senescence diminished vigor of the immune response to the challenge and rechallenge by pathogens
Incontinence inability to retain urine or feces because of loss of sphincter control or cerebral or spinal lesions.
Intractable resistant to cure, relief, or control.
Intracerebral Hemorrhage bleeding directly into the brain
colostomy a surgical diversion of the large intestine through an opening in the skin where the fecal matter is collected in a pouch; may be temporary or permanent
cor pulmonale congestive heart failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
demyelination destruction or removal of the myelin sheath of nerve tissue; found in Guillain-Barré syndrome
emesis vomitus
exocrine disorder involving external secretions
gangrene death of tissue or bone, usually from an insufficient blood supply
Ankylosing spondylitis a form of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine.
Anorexia nervosa eating disorder marked by excessive fasting.
Anoxic hypoxemia an oxygen deficiency due to disordered pulmonary mechanism of oxygenation.
Aortic dissection a degeneration of the wall of the aorta.
Aphasia absence or impairment of the ability to communicate through speaking, writing, or signing as a result of brain injury due to stroke or head injury and no longer has the ability to speak or read. In sensory aphasia, the patient can understand the spoken work. In motor aphasia, the patient can understand what is said but cannot speak. A patient with global aphasia, has both sensory and motor aphasia.
Assisted living housing for the elderly or disabled that provides nursing care, housekeeping, and prepared meals as needed.
Autonomic dysfunction an abnormality of the involuntary aspect of the nervous system.
Brain ischemia injury to brain tissues caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients.
Cataracts medical condition in which the lens of the eye loses its clearness
Comorbidity having more than one disease at a time.
Congregate care living arrangement in which the elderly live in, but do not own, individual apartments or rooms and receive select services.
Delirium ac acute alteration in mental functioning that is often reversible.
Dementia A chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning
Dysphagia Difficulty or discomfort swallowing
Dysphoria A state of unease or generalized dissatisfaction with life (opposite of euphoria)
Elderly An old or aging person
Epistaxis Bleeding from the nose
Fibrosis The thickening and scarring of connective tissue, usually as a result of injury functional impairment
Functional impairment When the normal function of a part of the body is less than full capacity
Geriatric abuse a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person
Geriatrics the branch of medicine or social science dealing with the health and care of old people
Gerontology the scientific study of old age, the process of aging, and the particular problems of old people
Glaucoma a condition of increased pressure within the eyeball, causing a gradual loss of sight
Cleft lip a physical split or separation of the two sides of the upper lip and appears as a narrow opening or gap in the skin of the upper lip.
Cleft Palate a split or opening in the roof of the mouth
Delayed cord clamping recommended delay in clamping the umbilical cord in a newly born infant who does not require immediate resuscitation to minimize the likelihood of intravascular hemmorage
Diaphragmatic hernia protrusion of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity through an opening in the diaphram
Ductus arteriosus channel between the main pulmonary artery and aorta of the fetus
Extrauterine outside of the uterus
Glottis function opening and closing of the glottic space
Herniation protrusion or projection of an organ or part of an organ throught the wall of a cavity that normally contains it
Hyperbilirubinemia an excessive amount of bilirubin in the bile
Intrapartum occurring during childbirth
Isolette a clear plastic enclosed bassinet used to keep prematurely born infants warm