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Immunology day 2

QuestionAnswer
Which antibodies can be given passively? To Be Healed Rapidly: Tetanus, Botulinum, HBV, RabiesI
Isotype switching is mediated by CD40 ligan, IL-4, IL-5, Il-6
IgA functions Prevents attachment of bacteria and viruses to mucous membranes, does not fix complement
Defect in tyrosine kinase gene (BTK). Name disorder, what you would see, lab findings, inheritance? (decreased production) Bruton's agammaglobinulinemia. Recurrent bacterial infections after 6 month (maternal IgG levels decline). Low B cells, normal pro-B cells. X linked
Thymus and parathyroids fail to developt owing to failure of development of 3/4 pouch. Name disorder, what you would see, lab findings, inheritance (Decreased production). CATCH-22 (Cardiac defects, abnromal facies, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, hypocalcemia (tetany), microdeletion of 22). Will have recurrent fungal/viral infections. 22q11 deletion
Name the multiple causes of SCID and labs for each. Causes: Failure to synthesize MHC II (noraml immature T cells), defective IL-2 receptor (normal Pro-T cells, X-linked), ADA deficiency (only stem cells present)
No rejection of allografts SCID
Patient with SCID will present: Recurrent viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal infections. No rejection of allografts, high incidence of malignancy, GVH disease, FTT)
Decreased activation of T cells is a result of what deficiency? What cells are deficient? IL-12; causes disseminated mycobacterial infections due to decreased TH1 resposne
decreased activation of B cells results in what disorder? presentation, lab values hyper-IgM syndrome; CD40L on CD4 T helper cells --> inability to class switch. Presents with pyogenic infections. High IgM, low IgG, IgE, IgA
Disorder= high IgM, low IgG, IgE, IgA, Disorder= high IgE, IgA, low IgM, Disorder = High IgE Hyper-IgM syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Job's syndrome
Defect in the ability to mount an IgM response to capsular polysaccharides of bacteria. Disorder, mechanism, presentation, lab, genetics Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (decreased activation of B cells), "WIPE" = pyogenic Infections, thrombocytopenic Purpura, Eczema, high IgE, IgA, X-linked
Neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli Job's syndrome (decreased activity of neutrophils), Failure of IFN-gamma production by helper T cells. (FATED) Coarse facies, cold staphylococcal abcesses, retained primary Teeth, high igE, Dermatologic problems (eczema)
Defect in LFA-1integrin (CD_) proteins on ___ CD18, phagocytes; LAD defciency (phagocyte cell deficiency). Early recurrent bacterial infections, absetn pus formation, neutrophila, delayed seperation from umbilical cord
Defect in microtubular function and lysosomal emptying of phagocytic cells. Presentation, genetics Chediak-Higashi (phagocytic cell deficiency). Recurrent pyogenic infections, by staph, strep, partial albinism, peripheral neuropathy, autosomal recessive
Defect in microbiocidal activity of ____. Describe presentation. Describe diagnostic test NADPH oxidase. Chronic granulomatous disease (deficiency of phagocytes). Presents with marked susceptibility to S. aureus, E. coli, Aspergilllus. Negative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction test
Chronic mucotaneous candidiasis is a dysfunction in what cell type? T cell dysfunction against candida. Presents with skin and mucous membrane candida infections
Deficiency in a class of immunoglobulins Selective immunoglobulin deficiency. Selective IgA deficiency is the most common; Presents with sinus, lung infections, milk allergies, diarrhea.
milk allergies, diarrhea due to - IgA deficiency
Anaphylaxis to bloo products IgA deficiency
Defect in DNA reapir enzymes. Its associated with what deficiency? presents with what problems? Ataxia telangiectasia; associated with IgA deficiency. cerebellar problems, spider angiomas (due to ATM gene) = autosomal recessive, tumor suppressor
decreased plasma cells but normal B cells Common variable immunodeficiency; present in 20s-30s; increased risk of autoimmune disease, lymphoma.
Bugs that have antigenic variation include salmonella (flagellar), borrelia, Neisseria (pilus), Virus (shift=rearrangment, drift=random mutation), trypanosomes (african sleeping sickeness)- programmed rearrangement
Anergy: self-reactive molecules become non-reactive with costimulatory molecule
Types that have granulomatous disease Tuberculosis, Fungal (histo), syphillis, leprosy, Cat scratch, sarcoid, crohn's, berylliosis (non-caseating) (aerospace/nuclear industry)
Define granuloma Nodular collection of specialized macrophages (epitheliod cells) surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes)
Desribe progression of granuloma APC eats antigen; presents on MHC II--> matched with CD4; TH1 stimulates IFN gamma--> monocyte --> macrophage--> epitheliod cell --> giant cell
Components of granuloma epitheliod cell, giant cell, fibroblasts, lymphocytes.
Difference between Langhans cells and foreign body Langhans= multiple nuclei in horseshoe conformation; Foreign body = scattered nuclei
Radioimmunosorbent test Type I (detects specific igE antibodies in serum agasint specific allergies)
Coomb's: Direct/Indirect; hypersensitivity __ Direct: detects IgG/C3b attached to RBC; Indirect: detects antibodies in serum (Rh anti-D); II
Immunofluoresecnt staining III
Alternative pathway is part of ___ immune system. Eg: LPS, gram -; innate
Classical pathway is part of ___ immune system; it involves C1-C4 = viral neutralization; adaptive
Mannose binding lectin pathway Used for binding to sugars on surface
C3b =, c3a = c5a = C3b = opsonization, c5a, c3a = anaphylotoxins, c5a = neutrophil chemotaxis
Deficiency of c1 esterase leads to hereditary angioedema = problem with classical system; C1 esterase= noramlly controls complement; without it you'll have a decrease in C2-C4, increased cleavage products --> anaphylaxis (swelling of face/oropharynx)
C2 deficiency Association with septicemia (S. pneumoniae), lupus like syndrome in cildren
C6-C9/C5-8 deficiency Increased susceptibility to Neisseria/mengitidis
DAF function (decay accelerating factor): prevents complemetn activation of self cells
DAF deficiency due to a defect in the the anchoring of the particle; leads to complement mediated lysis for RBCs and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglboinuria (platelets, neutrophils, hemoglobinuria)
Function of interferons: induce production of ribonuclease that inhibits viral protein synthesis by degrading viral mRNA. Also activates NK cells to kill virus-infected cells
Alpha/beta interferons ___-, while gammma does ___ alpha/beta = inhibit viral protein synthesis, gamma= increases MHC I/II expression and antigen presentation on cells
Created by: ddecampo