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Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Metal A class of elements characterized by physical properties that include shininess, malleability, ductility, and conductivity
malleable can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets and other shapes
ductile can be pulled out, or drawn, into a long wire
conductivity ability to transfer heat or electricity to another object
reactivity the ease and speed that an element combines or reacts with other elements
corrosion the gradual wearing away of a metal element due to a chemical reaction
alkali metals an element in Group 1, from lithium to francium
alkaline earth metals an element in Group 2, from Beryllium to Radium
transition metals elements in Groups 3 -12, hard and shiny, good conductors of electricity, form colorful compounds
Lanthanides soft, malleable shiny metals with high conductivity
Alloy a mixture of a metal with at least one other element, usually another metal
actinides elements below lanthanides, 1st 4 occur naturally on Earth, others made in a lab
Synthetic Elements Elements with atomic numbers higher than 92
particle accelerators a machine that moves atomic nuclei at higher and higher speeds until they crash into one another, sometimes forming heavier elements
Nonmetal an element that lacks most of the properties of metal Physical Properties: dull and brittle, can break and crumble, poor conductors of electricity and heat Chemical Properties: reactive with other elements, form compounds, can share electrons
Diatomic molecule Consists of two atoms
Halogen Elements from group 17 - salt forming
Semiconductors substances that can conduct electricity only under some conditions; used to make computer chips, transistors, & lasers
Metalloids have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals; solid at room temperature; brittle; hard; somewhat reactive
Noble Gas unreactive; do not gain, lose or share electrons; exist only in small amounts
Hydrogen element with the simplest and smallest atoms; makes up 90% of atoms in universe; sun and stars mostly made up of it
nebula eventually a star shrinks and the element spreads into space forming a cloud like region of gases
supernova huge explosion that breaks apart a massive star, producing temperature up to 1 billion degrees Celsius; -provides enough energy for the nuclear fusion reactions that create the heaviest elements
Nuclear Fusion process in which two atomic nuclei combine to form a larger nucleus, releasing huge amounts of energy -occurs in stars, combining smaller nuclei into larger nuclei creating heavier elements
plasma -state of matter consist of a gas-like mixture of free electrons and atoms stripped of electrons - can be produced by high-voltage or electrical spark -forms inside fluorescent light, flat screen TVs -Sun's plasma is under high pressure
Atomic # = # of protons
Atomic # = # of electrons
# of protons = # of electrons
Rounded off atomic mass - atomic # = # of neutrons
Created by: JBellotti