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SLS Bio Genetics MT

TermDefinition
Allele An alternative form of a gene.
Autosome Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
codominance A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
dihybrid A cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
dominant allele An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
genotype An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
heterozygous An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
homozygous An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
monohybrid A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
multiple allele A gene that has more than two alleles
phenotype An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
punnet square A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
recessive allele An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
sex chromosome Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
sex-linked trait a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans
test cross the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
apoptosis Programmed cell death
cell cycle series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
centriole Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
centromere Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
chromatin Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
chromosome A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
crossing-over process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
diploid (2n) Are the cells in the end of Meiosis I Haploid (n) or Diploid (2n)
chromosome number the number of chromosomes in a normal cell, in humans there are 23 pairs of chromosomes
gamete Sex cell
haploid (n) half the normal number of chromosomes; found in sex cells
homologous chromosomes Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
meiosis Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
mitosis A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
nondisjunction Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.
somatic cell Any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells.
synapsis Pairing of homologous chromosomes
Created by: Marcus Tezinde