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Chapter 12

Human Genetics

sex chromosomes genes that determine the sex of an individual
autosomes chromosomes that do not determine the sex of a person
sex-linked trait a trait that is coded by an allele on a sex chromosome
linked genes a pair of genes that tend to be inherited together
chromosome map a diagram that shows the linear order of genes on a chromosome
map unit a frequency of crossing over one percent
Germ-cell mutations mutations in the gametes
somatic-cell mutations mutations in the body cells
lethal mutations cause death (usually before birth)
deletion the loss of a piece of chromosome due to breakage
inversion a chromosomal segment breaks off and flips around
translocation a piece of one chromosome breaks off and goes onto another
nondisjunction a chromosome does not separate during meiosis
point mutation substitution, addition, or removal of a single nucleotide
substitution one nucleotide replaces another
frameshift mutation an incorrect grouping of the remaining codons
insertion mutations one or more nucleotides are added to a gene
pedigree a diagram that shows how a trait is passed along through generations
genetic disorders diseases or disabling conditions that have a genetic basis
carriers people who have recessive genes but not the disease
polygenic characters that are influenced by several genes
complex characters characters influenced by elements and genes
multiple alleles genes with 3 or more alleles
codominance both alleles are dominant
incomplete dominance a trait that is intermediate between the parents
sex-influenced traits autosomal traits
huntington's disease an autosomal dominant condition characterized by forgetfulness and irritability
amniocentesis removing fluid from pregnant women to see genes/sex of baby
chorionic villi sampling doctor takes sample of chorionic villi cells to find genetic diseases
genetic counseling informing a person about their genetic makeup
gene therapy placing healthy genes into genes that are defective
Created by: elizrhys