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Biology 12

Biology Chapter 12

Sex Chromosomes Genetic chromosomes called X and Y (determines gender)
Autosomes Remaining chromosomes in body
Sex-linked trait Trait thats coded for by an allele on a sex chromosome
Linked gene Pairs of genes that tend to be inherited together
Chromosome map Diagram that shows the linear order of genes on a chromosome
Map Unit Frequency of crossing-over of 1%
Germ-cell mutation Occur in Organisms gametes
Somatic- cell mutation Take place in an organism's body cells and can therefore affect the organism
Lethal mutation Causes death before birth
Deletion Loss of a chromosome, due to breakage
Inversion Chromosomal segment breaks, flips around backward, and reattaches
Translocation Piece of one chromosome breaks off and reattaches to a non homologous chromosome
Nondisjunction Chromosome fails to separate from its homologue during meiosis
Point mutation Change that occurs within a single gene
Substitution One nucleotide replaces another
Frameshift mutation Making all amino acids downstream change
Insertion mutation One or more nucleotides are added to a gene
Pedigree Diagram shows how trait is inherited
Carrier Individuals such as the four people in the 5th generation
Genetic Disorder Disabling conditions that have a genetic basis
Polygenic Characters influenced by several genes
Complex Character Characters that are influenced strongly both by environment and by genes
Multiple allele Genes with 3 or more alleles
Codominance Both alleles are expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote
Incomplete Dominance Individual displays a trait that is intermediate between the two parents
Sex-influenced trait Involved in other complex characters
Huntigton's Disease Autosomal dominat condition characterized by forgetfulness and irritability
Amniocentesis Allows removal of some amniotic fluid from amnion sac surrounds the fetus
Chorionic villi sampling Chrorionic villi cells derived from the zygote that grows between the mothers uterus and placenta between 8th and 10th week
Genetic counseling Informing a person about genetic info
Gene Therapy Healthy copy of gene is placed in copy of gene thats defective
Created by: cvHatcher



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