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Genetics The study of heredity
Heredity The passing on of traits from parents to offspring
Gregor Mendel *studied heredity of pea plants and how traits are passed from one generation to another *known as the Father of Genetics because of his documented studies of heredity
Traits Physical characteristics of an organism
Genes *factors that control traits – found on chromosomes *inherited in pairs from parents
Alleles *different forms of a gene Ex. tall stem/short stem, brown fur/white fur
Dominant traits *stronger traits represented by a capital letter - always shows up when the allele is present in a gene pair
Recessive traits *weaker traits represented by a lower case letter – is masked or hidden when paired with a dominant allele in a gene pair
Truebreed / Purebred (homozygous) )*an organism that has genes that are (Purbred) alike for a particular trait (two dominant genes or two recessive genes) *Ex: two genes for tall stems (TT), or two genes for short stems (tt)
Hybrid (heterozygous) *an organism that has two different genes for a particular trait (one dominant gene and one recessive gene) *Ex. one gene for tall stems and one gene for short stems (Tt)
Punnett Square *Special chart used to show the possible gene combinations in a cross between two organisms
Phenotype *physical characteristics of an organism *Ex. brown fur, tall stems. . .
Genotype *The actual gene makeup or allele combination Ex. BB = truebreed dominant Bb = hybrid bb = truebreed recessive
Meiosis *Cell process that produces sex cells (sperm and egg cells) *chromosomes in the original parent cell double and then divide twice into 4 new cells *sex cells have 1/2 the number of chromosomes as the original cell
Identical twins *one egg cell fertilized by one sperm cell and cell splits in early stages of development
Fraternal twins *two separate egg cells fertilized by two separate sperm cells
Chromosomes *rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of a cell *carries genes from parents to offspring *found in pairs
Sex chromosomes *specialized chromosomes that determine the gender of offspring *Ex. XY = Male XX = Female
Gametes *sex cells (sperm and egg cells)
Zygote *fertilized egg cell
Sexual Reproduction *reproductive process that involves two parents *organisms get half their genes from one parent and half from the other *offspring are genetically different from parents (DNA) *creates greatest genetic diversity
Asexual Reproduction *reproductive process that involves one parent *genetic material is not exchanged because organism reproduces on its own *offspring are genetically identical to the parent (DNA) *no genetic diversity Ex. binary fission, budding, cutting
Created by: jholmes2271