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Internal Structure

Vocabulary for Second Semester

Lithosphere Consists of the upper mantle and the Earth's crust.
Asthenosphere Area directly below the lithosphere which is less rigid than the rock above, but still rigid enough to transmit seismic waves.
Magnetic Field Earth's magnetic field extends from its interior to space where it meets the solar wind (a stream of charged particles that emerge from the sun).
Hydrosphere Area of the Earth that encompasses all water present on the planet's surface, including oceanic water, and that within the atmosphere.
Magnetosphere The outer region of the Earth's Ionosphere, where the Earth's magnetic field controls the most charged particles.
Atmosphere The gaseous envelope surrounding a heavenly body; the air that surrounds the Earth.
Dynamo Effect A geophysical theory that explains the origin of the Earth's magnetic field in terms of a self-sustaining dynamo.
Continental Drift Hypothesis Proposed by Alfred Wegener, it is a theory that proposes that at one point in history, all of the Earth's continents were joined together in one super-continent known as Pangea, but drifted apart over time.
Subduction Zone This is when tectonic plates collide, and one will submerse itself underneath the other.
Lamproites These are ultrapotassic, mantle-derived, volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. They're geographically widespread, yet their volume is insignificant.
Transform Plate Boundaries This occurs when tectonics plates are sliding by each other in opposite directions. Many are found on the ocean's floor.
Divergent Plate Boundaries When tectonic plates pull apart from one another in opposite directions, creating a rift or valley.
Convergent Plate Boundaries Tectonic plate collision in which neither plate submits to the other, so they converge upwards together to form mountainous structures.
Conduction Method of energy transfer in which direct contact has occurred, resulting in the transference of heat, electricity, or sound.
Convection The movement within a fluid caused by the heated area rising, thus making room for the denser, cooler area to warm up, causing the fluid to circulate.
Radiation The emission of energy through waves or rays.
Plasma Ionized gas that consists of positive ions and free electrons (resulting in no charge), which exists at low pressures (upper atmosphere) or high temperatures (stars).
Geomagnetic Reversals This occurs when the magnetic North and South switch, while the geographical locations remain the same.
Coriolis Effect When a rotating mass experiences a force which is acting perpendicularly to the direction of motion and the axis of rotation.
Global Warming This is the term given to the increased pollution thickening the ozone, thus trapping greenhouse gases within, causing irregularities within the environment.
Plate Tectonics A theory which explains the Earth's crust and many associated phenomenons as a result of the interaction of rigid lithospheric plates moving slowly underneath the mantle.
Doppler Effect An increase or decrease in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves, as the source and observer move towards or away from one another.
Greenhouse Effect The trapping of the sun's warmth in the lower atmosphere of a planet due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted via the planet's surface
Mantle The layer of the Earth between the outer core and crust. It makes up 84% of Earth's volume and is predominantly solid, silicate rocky shell, although in geological time it behaves as a vicious liquid.
Seismograph Instrument used to detect and record earthquakes.
Seismic Waves An elastic wave within the Earth that is produced by earthquakes or other means.
Sea-Floor Spreading This is the formation of new areas of oceanic crust that occur through the expulsion of magma at mid-ocean regions and its resulting outward movement on the surrounding area.
Xenolith A piece of rock within an igneous rock, that is not actually a part of the original magma from which that rock was created. It has been introduced from elsewhere in the environment.
Created by: 1617398971620396