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Med Surg 1


Hemarthrosis Bleeding into joint spaces
Anemia Disorder characterized y levels of RBCs hemoglobin, and hematocrit that are below normal range
Erythropoiesis Process of RBC production
Erythrocytosis Increase in circulating erythrocytes
Aplasia Hematological term for a failure of the normal process of cell generation and development
Hemophilia A Characterized by a disturbance of the clotting factor (the more common type of hemophilia)
Homozygous Having two identical genes inherited from each parent for a given hereditary characteristic
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Grave coagulopathy resulting from the overstimulation of anticlotting processes in response to disease or injury
Heterozygous Having two different genes
Lymphangitis Characterized by fine red streaks from the affected area in the groin or axilla
Pernicious Is one that is capable of causing great injury, destruction, or death
Myeloproliferative Characterized by excessive bone marrow production
Pancytopenic All three major blood elements (RBC, WBC, Platelets) from bone marrow are reduced or absent
Thrombocytopenia An abnormal hematological condition in which the number of platelets is reduced to fewer than 150,000
Reed-Sternberg cells Are atypical histocytes consisting of large, abnormal, multinucleated cells in the lymph nodes found in Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Idiopathic Cause unknown
Multiple myeloma Malignant neoplastic immunodeficiency disease of the bone marrow
Leukemia Malignant disorder of the hematopoietic system in which an excess of leukocytes accumulates in the bone marrow and lymph nodes
Leukopenia White blood count is extremely low
Lymphedema Is a primary or secondary disorder characterized be the accumulation of lymph in soft tissue and edema
The nurse is caring for clients in an oncology unit. Which neutropenia precautions should be implemented? Limit fresh fruit and flowers
The client diagnosed with leukemia has central nervous system involvement. Which instructions should the nurse teach? Explain radiation therapy to the head may result in hair loss
The client diagnosed with leukemia is scheduled for bone marrow transplantation. Which interventions should be implemented to prepare the client for this procedure? Provide central line care per protocol. Monitor the complete blood cell count daily, have the family members HLA typed, administer high-dose chemotherapy
The nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. Which assessment data support this diagnosis? Pain in the left upper quadrant
A nurse is admitting a client diagnosed with anemia. Which interventions should be included in the plan of care? Move the client to a room near the nurses desk, Allow for rest periods during the day for the client, Monitor the client's hemoglobin and hematocrit, Assess the client for numbness and tingling
The nurse is admitting a client with a diagnosis of rule-out Hodgkin's lymphoma. Which assessment data support this diagnosis? Night sweats and fever without chills
The nurse is transcribing the HCP's order for an iron supplement on the MAR. At which time should the nurse schedule the daily dose? 1000
Which client would be most at risk for developing disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)? A 78 yr old client diagnosed with septicemia
Which laboratory result would the nurse expect in the client diagnosed with DIC? Low fibrinogen level
The unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) ask the primary nurse, "How does someone get hemophilia A?" Which statement would be the primary nurse's best response? The mother carries the gene and gives it to the son
Which sign would the nurse expect to assess in the client diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)? Petechia on the anterior chest, arms, and neck
The student nurse ask the nurse, "What is sickle cell anemia?" Which statement by the nurse would be the best answer to the students question? The blood becomes thick when the client is deprived of oxygen
Coagulation profiles Reveal a normal platelet count, bleeding time, Prothrombin time, and Internal Normalized Ratio (INR)
D-dimer Reveals the breakdown of fibrin and is a specific marker for the degree of fibrinolysis in the serum
List three critical functions of the blood Transport (carry) O2 & nutrients to cells and waste products away from cells, transports hormones from endocrine glands to tissues & cells; Regulates acid base balance; Protects body against infection
List four components of blood Erythrocytes (RBC), Leukocytes (WBC), Plasma, Platelets
Describe RBC Also called erythrocytes, function is transportation, shape is biconcave disk with no nuclei
Describe WBC Also called leukocytes, function is body defense, shape is biconcave disk with a nucleus
Describe platelets Also called thrombocytes, role in process of hemostasis & prevention of blood loss, shape is circular cell fragments with no nuclei
Give three facts that support the statement, "Blood is classified as tissue of the body" (connective tissue) Cells are similar, cells are closely associated, and cells perform similar functions
Explain the functions of hemoglobin Carries oxygen from lungs to the cells and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs
What does hematocrit measure? Percentage of red blood cells in whole blood
What is the role of the erythrocyte (RBC) in supplying the body with oxygen and nutrients and in ridding the body of carbon dioxide and waste? Carries O2 & nutrients to capillary, diffuse into body tissues. CO2 and waste in the capillaries attach to Hgb to be eliminated through respirations & filtration in the kidneys
List two broad categories of leukocytes (WBC) Granulocytes & nongranulocytes (agranulocytes)
Name two types of agranulocytes Lymphocytes & monocytes
What is done during a differential white blood count? Measures five types of WBC's and reports them as percentages of the total examined
What is hemopoiesis? Production of blood cells
What is hemocytoblast? All blood cells develop from this stem cell
What is hypovolemic anemia? Secondary anemia when deficiencies in RBCs & other components are caused by abnormally low circulating blood volume resulting from acute/chronic blood loss
List three possible causes of hypovolemic anemia Surgical procedure, trauma, severe burns, menorrhagia, GI bleed
Why is urine output carefully monitored in a patient with hypovolemic anemia? You need to monitor whether or not the kidneys are receiving adequate blood flow to prevent irreversible damage to kidney's, (toxins will remain in body if there is less than 30cc/hr)
How does the lack of the intrinsic factor cause anemia? B12 cannot be absorbed from food, B12 is necessary for manufacturing RBCs
List four symptoms specific to pernicious anemia Extreme weakness, paresthesia, hypoxia, reddened smooth tongue
What type of diet is best for patients with pernicious anemia? High protein, vitamins & minerals, foods high in B12
What happens to bone marrow in secondary aplastic anemia? Bone marrow is with fatty deposits, can't produce RBCs
What does the term Pancytopenic mean? All three major elements (RBC, WBC, Plt) from bone marrow are reduced or absent
Why might patients with aplastic anemia have repeated infections and hemorrhage as well as anemia's? Decreased WBC = infections, decreased platelets = hemorrhage, decreased RBC = anemia's
What types of medications commonly cause aplastic anemia? Antineoplastic medications
List three categories of people whose bodies have an increased demand for iron (Fe) Infants, young adolescents, and pregnant women
What is the most common cause of iron-deficiency anemia in adults GI or uterine bleeding
What foods should be included in the diet of a patient with iron-deficiency anemia? Organ meat, red meats, eggs, dark green leafy vegetables, beans, and nuts
What is the incidence of sickle cell anemia? Mostly African Americans, is the most common genetic disorder in USA
What happens to the erythrocytes in sickle cell anemia? RBC's become crescent shaped when O2 is low, which means RBC's cannot carry normal Hgb (Hgb-S)
What occurs during a sickle cell crisis? RBC's take on sickle form & cannot flow smoothly through the blood vessels, clump in small vessels = edema in extremities joint pain, back pain. As the sickle cells congest the liver, abdominal enlargement, jaundice, and hemorrhage result
List three ways patients with sickle cell anemia can avoid crisis 0 increase in altitudes, 0 unpressurized planes, 0 dehydration, 0 vigorous exercise, 0 ice liquids or cold exposure, 0 ETOH, and reduce stress
What is polycythemia? Excessive bone marrow production - Primary (aka polycythemia vera) cause is unknown, patient with this disorder may also have elevated levels of granulocytes and platelets in the blood
What is secondary polycythemia? Caused when the body becomes hypoxic, stimulates erythropoietin, which produces more erythrocytes to meet the demand. Cause may be due to high altitude, cardiac or pulmonary disease
What is agranulocytosis? Potentially fatal condition of blood characterized by severe reductions in the number of granulocytes
What are the causes of agranulocytosis? Adverse medication reaction or toxicity
What type of precautions should be used with a patient with agranulocytosis? Protect patient from potential sources of infection (family & friends with colds and fevers)
What are three subjective assessments to make about a patient with leukemia? Complains of pain in joints, fatigue, malaise (lack of strength & lack of stamina)
What are three objective assessments to make about a patient with leukemia? Enlarged lymph nodes, spleen (splenomegaly), anemia, thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets)
Why would bone marrow transplant be used to treat acute leukemia? Because with leukemia, all bone marrow is infected/diseased
What types of complications of leukemia can be fatal? Anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia
How can you protect at patient with leukemia from exposure to potential pathogens? Neutropenic precautions - reverse isolation and meticulous hand hygiene. Restrict visitors if they have colds/fevers
What is thrombocytopenia? Deficiency in the number of circulating platelets (less than 150,000) or change in the functions of platelets alters the process of coagulation
What is thrombocytopenia purpura? When platelets are destroyed by the body (caused by meds)
What is idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura? Autoimmune disease with unknown origin (platelets covered in antibodies, when they reach the spleen the body sees antibodies as foreign)
What is hemophilia? When body does not manufacture one of the components for clotting
Compare & contrast hemophilia A & hemophilia B A = clotting factor VIII (8) is missing, most common B = clotting factor IX (9) is missing
What are the risk associated with hemophilia? Bleeding/hemorrhage
What is happening during DIC? Overstimulation of clotting and anticlotting processes; thrombosis & bleeding occur simultaneously
What happens in multiple myeloma? Malignant (not curable) immunodeficiency disease of bone marrow
How is multiple myeloma diagnosed? Radiographic skeletal studies, bone marrow biopsy, blood & U/A test
How is multiple myeloma treated? Symptomatic (no cure); Nursing interventions: pain relief, preventing infection & bone injury & maintain hydration (3-4 L/day), use caution when moving patient
What is Hodgkin's lymphoma? Malignant disorder characterized by painless progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue
How is Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed? Lymphoscintigraphy/Reed-Sternbergs cells in lymph node biopsy specimens
How is Hodgkin's treated? Depends on staging; 1-2 = radiation, 3-4 = Chemo or radiation or combination of both
What is a bone marrow transplant? Infusion of healthy bone marrow via IV
Why are bone marrow transplants performed? To reproduce healthy RBCs in someone who has diseased bone marrow
Describe a bone marrow aspiration Needle is bored into bone marrow and bone marrow is siphoned (aspirated) out
What is the prognosis for a patient with aplastic anemia Guarded, unless untreated. Untreated = 75% fatal
How is hemophilia treated? Infusions of missing clotting factor
How is DIC treated? Heparin (prevents further clots), blood transfusion to replace blood loss antifibrinolytic's should be given to adults
List three nursing diagnosis for a patient with leukemia Risk for infection, Risk for injury, Risk for ineffective coping
What is the desired effect for the medication cyancobalamin (B12) Replaces B12 that can't be absorbed in the stomach
What is the desired effect for the medication Folic Acid (B6) Erythropoiesis - production of RBC
What is the desire effect for Iron Dextran (Imeferon) Replaces iron (Fe) via deep IM, Z-track
What is the desired effect for Ferrous sulfate (Feosol) Replaces iron (Fe) via orally - give tablets with OJ or tomato juice to increase absorption, give liquid Ferrous sulfate thru a straw to prevent staining on teeth
What is phagocytosis? The process of WBC surrounding and ingesting bacteria
What percentage of the body's fluid is plasma? 55%
Describe hemoglobin (Hgb) Normal range 12-18, contains Fe (iron) and is carried by RBC's. Carries O2 and exchanges it for CO2 at the capillary level
Describe hematocrit (Hct) Normal range 38-50, measures the percent of blood that is made up of packed red blood cells (PRBC)
What does the (RBC) erythrocyte do? Carries O2 and nutrients to capillary, diffuse into body tissue. CO2 and waste in the capillaries attach to Hgb to be eliminated through respirations and filtration of the kidney
What is a reticulocyte? Immature RBC
What happens when a patient has low levels of erythrocytes, Hgb, and Hct? Patient will exhibit lack of energy and not stamina
Where does the production of blood cells (hemopoiesis) occur? Mostly in the red bone marrow of sternum, ribs, skull, vertebrae, iliac crests and end of long bones (occurs continually)
What is a hemocytoblast? All blood cells develop from this stem cell
What are thrombocytes (platelets)? Smallest cells in the blood; form clots to seal off break in blood vessel
What are immature neutrophils called? Bands
What is it called when there is a presence of excess bands? Shift to the left
What is the test called that looks at the different types of blood cells? Differential "diff"
What does it mean when immature neutrophil count exceeds 8% of total count? Bone marrow has used up its reserves
What does it mean when there are excessive bands present? Severe infection
What is the treatment for pernicious anemia? B12 injections for life, can add folic acid & Fe supplements
What patients are at higher risk for aplastic anemia? Cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy
What blood test determines pancytopenia? CBC
What is the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia? RBCs become crescent shaped when O2 is low, cannot carry normal Hgb (Hgb-S)
What is the treatment for sickle cell crisis? Fluids, O2, and rest
What happens during a sickle cell crisis? Blood cells clump is small vessels = edema of extremities, joint pain & back pain
What is the treatment for polycythemia? Therapeutic phlebotomy (may need to be done every 2-3 months
What is the major nursing focus for agranulocytosis? Alleviate factors responsible for bone marrow depression, protect patient from infection, METICULOUS HAND HYGEINE
What is the treatment for leukemia? Chemo & radiation, once leukemia is in remission - replace with healthy bone marrow (bone marrow transplant)
What is the patient teaching for idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura? Increased risk for bleeding because body is destroying platelets
What are the symptoms for hemophilia? Hemarthrosis = ankyloses (fixation of the joint) PETECHIAE & ECCHYMOSIS (bruising)
What are nursing interventions for thrombocytopenia? Assess for bleeding; institute bleed precautions; teach patient to avoid trauma
What is patient teaching for hemophilia? No cure, avoid injury, avoid meds that increase bleeding (NSAIDS); risk for intracranial hemorrhage, prolonged nose bleeds; warm, painful, swollen joints w/decreased movement; risk of GI hemorrhage; watch for tarry stools, cola colored urine
What are bleeding precautions? R.A.N.D.I - no Razor blades, no Aspirin, use small Needles, Decrease needle sticks, protect from Injury
What is nursing interventions for Hodgkin's lymphoma? Pruritus is often severe - soothing baths with an antipruritic medication can be effective
Created by: tandkhopkins