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Unit Heredity

TermDefinition
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule that is present in all living cells and that contains the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and needs to live
Chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
Cell Cycle the life cycle of a cell
Interphase the period of the cell cycle during which activities such as cell growth and protein synthesis occur without visible signs of cell division
Mitosis in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromoksomes
Cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm of a cell
Homologous Chromosomes chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and and the same structure
Meiosis a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
Asexual Reproduction reproduction that does not involve the union of sex cells and in which one parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Sexual Reproduction reproduction in which two sex cells from two parents unite to produce offspring that share traits from both parents
Fertilization the union of a male and female gamete to from a zygote
Heredity the passing of genetic material from parent to offspring
Gene one set of instructions of inherited trait
Allele one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic
Genotype the entire genetic make-up of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
Phenotype an organism's appearance or other detectable characteristics
Dominant in genetics, describes an allele that is fully expressed whenever the allele is present in an individual
Recessive describes an allele that will be masked unless the organism is homozygous for the trait
Incomplete Dominance a condition in which two alleles are expressed such that the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is an intermediate of the phenotypes of the two homozygous parents
Codominance a condition which two alleles are expressed such that the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is a combination of the phenotypes of the two homozygous parents
Punnett Square a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross
Probability the likelihood that a future event will occur in any given instance of the event
Ratio a comparison of two numbers using division
Pedigree a diagram that shows the occurrence of genetic trait in several generations of a family
Created by: Cressida