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these will descride individual parts of the earth
|a region around a magnetic material or a moving electric charge within which the force of magnetism acts.
|4th state of matter after gas, extremely hot
|light waves ranging from radio waves to gamma waves
|a major layer of earth containing upper[liquid] and lower[semi-solid] mantles
|Vibrations in the earth that originates from tectonic activity
|Layer of earth containing the ocean, lakes, and rivers
|when heat gets trapped and cant escape so it heats up
|the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
|the upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur.
|the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.
|a piece of rock within an igneous rock that is not derived from the original magma but has been introduced from elsewhere, especially the surrounding country rock.
|The dynamo effect is a geophysical theory that explains the origin of the Earth's main magnetic field in terms of a self-exciting (or self-sustaining) dynamo.
|the process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature or of electrical potential between adjoining regions, without movement of the material.
|the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
|an increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move to or from each other. The effect causes the sudden change in pitch noticeable in a passing siren, as well as the redshift seen by astronomers.
|Lamproites are ultrapotassic mantle-derived volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. They have low CaO, Al2O3, Na2O, high K2O/Al2O3, a relatively high MgO content and extreme enrichment in incompatible elements.
|a theory explaining the structure of the earth's crust and many associated phenomena as resulting from the interaction of rigid lithospheric plates that move slowly over the underlying mantle.
|Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth's climate.
|the region surrounding the earth or another astronomical body in which its magnetic field is the predominant effective magnetic field.
|continental drift hypothesis
|Continental drift was a theory that explained how continents shift position on Earth's surface.
|Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
|an effect whereby a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force (the Coriolis force ) acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation.
|an igneous rock consisting largely of serpentine, believed to have been formed from the submarine eruption of oceanic crustal and upper mantle material.
|an instrument that measures seimic waves
|Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
|transform plate boundaries
|Transform boundaries are places where plates slide sideways past each other.
|divergent plate boundaries
|Most active divergent plate boundaries occur between oceanic plates and exist as mid-oceanic ridges.
|convergent plate boundaries
|In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary (because of subduction), is an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.