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lithosphere the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
Global warming term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth's climate.
asthenosphere the upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur. Image result for asthenosphere Layers of the Earth - Maggie's Science Connection Maggie's Science Connection433 × 419Search by image Picture Visit page View image Share Images may be subject to copyright.Send feedback Image result for asthenos
divergent plate boundaries Most active divergent plate boundaries occur between oceanic plates and exist as mid-oceanic ridges. Divergent boundaries also form volcanic islands which occur when the plates move apart to produce gaps which molten lava rises to fill.
plate tectonics a theory explaining the structure of the earth's crust and many associated phenomena as resulting from the interaction of rigid lithospheric plates that move slowly over the underlying mantle.
magnetic field a region around a magnetic material or a moving electric charge within which the force of magnetism acts.
convergent plate boundaries is an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.
Doppler Effect an increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other. The effect causes the sudden change in pitch noticeable in a passing siren, as well as the redshift seen by astron
Hydrosphere all the waters on the earth's surface, such as lakes and seas, and sometimes including water over the earth's surface, such as clouds.
conduction the process by which sound waves travel through a medium
Greenhouse Effect the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
Magnetosphere the region surrounding the earth or another astronomical body in which its magnetic field is the predominant effective magnetic field.
convection the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
Mantle The mantle is a layer between the crust and the outer core.
Atmosphere An atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
radiation the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization.
seismograph is an instrument used to detect and record earthquakes.
dynamo effect The dynamo effect is a geophysical theory that explains the origin of the Earth's main magnetic field in terms of a self-exciting (or self-sustaining) dynamo.
plasma an ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons in proportions resulting in more or less no overall electric charge, typically at low pressures (as in the upper atmosphere and in fluorescent lamps) or at very high temperatures (as in stars a
seismic waves an elastic wave in the earth produced by an earthquake or other means.
continental drift hypothesis Alfred Wegener was the scientist who proposed the Continental Drift Theory in the early twentieth century. Simply put, his hypothesis proposed that the continents had once been joined, and over time had drifted apart
Geomagnetic reversals A geomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged, while geographic north and geographic south remain the same.
sea-floor spreading Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
subduction zone A subduction zone is a region of the Earth's crust where tectonic plates meet
Coriolis effect an effect whereby a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force (the Coriolis force ) acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation
xenolith a piece of rock within an igneous rock that is not derived from the original magma but has been introduced from elsewhere, especially the surrounding country rock.
lamproites are ultrapotassic mantle-derived volcanic and subvolcanic rocks.
ophiolite an igneous rock consisting largely of serpentine, believed to have been formed from the submarine eruption of oceanic crustal and upper mantle material.
transform plate boundaries places where plates slide sideways past each other.
Created by: sarah5445