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Earth's Structure

Earth's Internal Structure

pictureDefinitionwork cited
asthenosphere the upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur.
magnetic field a region around a magnetic material or a moving electric charge within which the force of magnetism acts. www.google.com
hydrosphere all the waters on the earth's surface, such as lakes and seas, and sometimes including water over the earth's surface, such as clouds. www.google.com
magnetosphere the region surrounding the earth or another astronomical body in which its magnetic field is the predominant effective magnetic field. www.google.com
atmosphere the gases surrounding the earth or another planet
dynamo effect is a geophysical theory that explains the origin of the Earth's main magnetic field in terms of a self-exciting (or self-sustaining) dynamo. www.google.com
continental drift hypothesis that refers to the fact that continents are not stationary, but move across the Earth's surface. Continental drift is one feature of the modern theory of plate tectonics. www.google.com
subduction zone boundaries mark the collision between two of the planet's tectonic plates. www.google.com
lamproites are ultrapotassic mantle-derived volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. www.google.com
transform plate boundaries is a type of fault whose relative motion is predominantly horizontal, in either a sinistral (left lateral) or dextral (right lateral) direction. www.google.com
divergent plate boundaries A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving away from each other and new crust is forming from magma that rises to the Earth's surface between the two plates. www.google.com
convergent plate boundaries is an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide. www.google.com
conduction heat transferred through objects coming in contact with each other
convection heat is transferred through convection currents warm air rises while cold air sinks due to a heavier density and gravity so the air is circulating
radiation heat transferred through electromagnetic waves
plasma an ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons in proportions resulting in more or less no overall electric charge, www.google.com
geomagnetic reversals is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged, while geographic north and geographic south remain the same. www.google.com
Coriolis Effect an effect whereby a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force (the Coriolis force ) acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation. On the earth, the effect tends to deflect moving objects to the right in the northe www.google.com
ophiolite an igneous rock consisting largely of serpentine, believed to have been formed from the submarine eruption of oceanic crustal and upper mantle material. www.google.com
Global Warming a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants. www.google.com
plate tectonics a theory explaining the structure of the earth's crust and many associated phenomena as resulting from the interaction of rigid lithospheric plates that move slowly over the underlying mantle. www.google.com
Doppler Effect an increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other. sudden change in pitch www.google.com
Greenhouse Effect the trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet's surface. www.google.com
mantle the part of the earth's interior between the crust and the core, consist of hot, dense silicate rocks (mainly peridotite).
seismographs records waves from earthquakes
seismic waves an elastic wave in the earth produced by an earthquake or other big events
seafloor spreading the formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the upwelling of magma at midocean ridges and its subsequent outward movement on either side. www.google.com
xenolith a piece of rock within an igneous rock that is not derived from the original magma but has been introduced from elsewhere, especially the surrounding country rock. www.google.com
lithosphere the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
Created by: allison.clary