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heredity

unit 2

TermDefinition
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule that is present in all living cells and that contains the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and needs to live
interphase the period of a cell cycle during which activities such as cell growth and protein synthesis occur without visible signs of cell division
chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
mitosis in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which both have the same number of chromosomes
cell cycle the life of a cell
cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm of a cell
homologous chromosomes chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
meiosis a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells (gametes or spores)
asexual reproduction reproduction that does not involve the union of sex cells and in which one parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
sexual reproduction reproduction in which the sex cells from two parents unite to produce offspring that share traits from both parents
fertilization the union of a male and female gamete to form a zygote
heredity the passing of genetic material from parent to offspring
dominant in genetics, describes an allele that is fully expressed whenever the allele is present in an individual
gene one set of instructions for an inherited trait
recessive describes an allele that will be masked unless the organism is is homozygous for the trait
allele one of the alternative form of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
incomplete dominance a condition in which two alleles are expressed such that the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is an intermediate of the phenotypes of the two homozygous parents
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
phenotype an organism's appearance or detectable characteristic
codominance a condition in which two alleles are expressed such that the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is a combination of the phenotypes of the two homozygous parents
punnet square a graphic used to predict the results of genetic cross
ratio a comparison of two numbers using division
probability the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance or event
pedigree a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
Created by: angelrosario