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Chemistry Review

QuestionAnswer
What is the study of matter and its changes? Chemistry
What are the building blocks of matter? Atoms
A light, negatively charged particle of the atom is called? electrons
A heavy, positively charged particle of the atom is called? protons
A heavy, neutral (no charge) particle of the atom is called? neutrons
Which particles are found in the nucleus of the atom? protons and neutrons
Which particles are found outside of the nucleus? electrons
Which particles have the most mass? protons and neutrons
What are the first 4 energy levels in an atom called? K-L-M-N
How many electrons can the K energy level hold? 2
How many electrons can the L energy level hold? 8
How many ellectrons can the M energy level hold? 18
How many electrons can the N energy level hold? 32
What is an ion? An atom with a positive or negetive charge
How does an atom become a positive ion? loses electrons
How does an atom become a negetive ion? gains electrons
What chart arranges elements in order of increasing atomic number? periodic table of elements
What does the atomic number tell us about the atom? The number of protons & electrons (APE= Atomic # = Protons = Electrons)
What does the atomic mass tell us about the atom? The number of protons and neutrons
How do we calculate the number of neutrons in an atom? Atomic Mass - Atomic # = Neutrons(MAN = Mass - Atomic # = Neutrons)
What do we call the verical (up and down) columns of the periodic table? Groups/Families
What do we cann the horizontal (back and forth) rows of the periodic table? periods
What do elements in the same Period have in common? Same number of energy levels
What do elements in the same Group have in common? Same number of valence electrons
What are valence electrons? Electrons in the atoms outermost energy level, determines reactivity
How many valence electrons does an atom need to be stable? 8 valence electrons OR a full outer energy level
What type of elements are shiny solids that are good conductors of heat and electricity? Metals
What do metals do when they form a compound? Lost electrons
What type of elements are brittle solids, liquids and gases that are poor conductors of heat and electricity? Nonmetals
What do nonmetals do when they form compounds? Gain electrons
Which elements seldom react with other elements and are in group 18? Noble Gases
A process by which two or more atoms react to form something new is called a Chemical Reaction (change)
The substance around at the start of a reaction that you are mixing together are the reactants
The substances around at the end of a chemical reaction that are made are the products
What do all chemical reactions need in order to happen? Change in energy
Reactions that absorb energy and form chemical bonds are called Endothermic
Reactions that release energy and break chemical bonds are called Exothermic
What are the four indicators of a chemical reaction? 1. Formation of a gas2. Formation of a precipitate 3. Change in color4. Change in temperature
What do we call a short hand way of writing the name of a substance? Chemical Formula
What does the law of conservation of matter state? Matter can never be create or destroyed during a chemical reaction
How can we change the rate of a chemical reaction? 1. Increase the surface area2. Increase the temperature3. Increase the concentration
Created by: sloanescience