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7A Midterm Review

7th Midterm Review

What does the prefix KILO mean? 1000
What is the last step of the scientific method? Draw conclusions
What phase of matter would be the best conductor of heat/electricity and why? Solids because the particles are very close together
Solids have a ______________shape and ________________ volume. Definite and definite
Liquids have a ___________ shape and a _______________ volume. indefinite and definite
Gases and plasma have a _________________ shape and a __________ volume. Indefinite and indefinite
The phase of matter that is free to spread out evenly in its container is GAS
Name some examples of physical changes. melting, freezing, condensation, vaporization, deposition, sublimation, cutting paper, chopping wood
Physical changes are changes in SIZE, SHAPE, OR STATE!
A chemical change has happened IF ___________ A NEW SUBSTANCE HAS BEEN CREATED
Name some examples of chemical changes burning, rusting, decomposing, cooking
A ______ is a homogeneous mixture. SOLUTION
What is a mixture? Mixtures are substances combined in no set ratio THAT CAN BE SEPARATED BY PHYSICAL MEANS
Energy levels that surround the nucleus hold certain numbers of _________________. electrons
Lewis structure (also called Dot Diagrams) are used to show the number of VALENCE ELECTRONS
Horizontal rows on the Periodic Table are called PERIODS
Vertical columns on the Periodic Table are called Groups or Families
What is true about members of the same family? They have the same number of valence electrons so they behave alike in chemical reactions
Name some properties of nonmetals. They are brittle, poor conductors that are found to the right of the zig-zag line on the P.T.
Name some properties of metals. They are malleable, ductile, and good conductors. They are found to the left of the zig-zag line on the P.T.
How is the mass number calculated? By adding the protons and the neutrons.
What type of chemical bond exists if electrons are shared? Covalent
What type of chemical bond exists if electrons are transferred? Ionic
How many electrons are needed in the valence shell for stability? EIGHT!
When naming ionic compounds, how do we change the name of the nonmetal? We give it an IDE ending.
What is special about the Noble Gas Family? They all have full valence shells so they do not react chemically with other elements.
What is a solution? When one substance is dissolved into another
A solute is the Substance being dissoved
A solvent is the Substance doing the dissolving
What is a saturated solution? A solution that is holding the normal amount of solute at that temperature
Supersaturated means holding more solute than normal for that temp
Unsaturated means holding less solute than normal for that temp
Increasing the surface area of solute being touched by the solvent has what effect? speeds the rate of solution
Name the 2 ways to keep a gas solute dissolved in a liquid solvent. (Think of pop) Keep temp low and pressure high (keep top on pop)
Define dilute and concentrated. Dilute is a weak solution. Concentrated is a strong solution.
How does adding solute to solvent change its freezing and boiling point? Raises the boiling point and lowers the freezing point.
Define the word SOLUBILITY. Solubility is the amount of solute that can be dissolved in a solvent at a given temperature.
Name 3 ways to make a solid solute dissolve faster in a liquid solvent. HEAT, CRUSH, STIR
An acid produces what type of ion in solutions? Hydronium. Written as H3O+ or H+ This program cannot do subscripts or superscripts!
A base produces what type of ion in solutions? Hydroxide. Written as OH- This program cannot do subscripts or superscripts!
What is an indicator (like Phenolphthalein) used for? It turns color in the presence of an acid or base
When an acid and a base are mixed you get a salt and water
Bitter taste and slippery feel would be clues that a solution was a BASE
Sour taste and low pH would indicate a(n) ACID
pH stands for Percent hydronium
A pH of 1-3 would indicate a strong acid
A pH of 4-6 would indicate a weak acid
A pH of 7 is Neutral
A pH of 8-10 would indicate a weak base
A pH of 11-14 would indicate a strong base
What is air resistance? The upward force on a falling object
In the absence of air resistance all objects fall ______ AT THE SAME RATE!
What is the acceleration due to gravity on Earth? 9.8 meters per second squared
Name all 3 of Newton's Laws. Law One is Inertia. Law Two is F= M x A. Law Three is that every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
When an object moves in a circular path, it accelerates toward the center of a circle as a result of CENTRIPETAL FORCE
The path of a projectile is always curved.
Gravity depends on what two factors? Mass and Distance
As distance increases, gravity ________ DECREASES
Momentum is dependent on _____________ and __________________ Mass and velocity. ( In other words.... how big something is and how fast it is going)
What is the Law of Conservation of Momentum? The total momentum of a closed system remains unchanged after a collision because the momentum is TRANSFERRED
Why is the Periodic Table useful? Because if you know where something is located on the table you can determine if it is likely to react at all and who it is likely to react with!!
Plasma is most similar to what other state of matter? Gas because they both have no definite shape or volume
Created by: cwalczak