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7 CK GENETICS Part 2

7th CK SCIENCE GENETICS - PART 2 - COMPLETE

TermDefinition
heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
Heterozygous (hybrid) having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic; two different genes or alleles for a particular trait (tt); or that combines traits of two different but related species
mutation any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell; may be beneficial, harmful, or have little effect on an organism.
Natural selection the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind, thus ensuring the perpetuation of those favorable traits
Phenotype observable genetic makeup; physical appearance
protein synthesis process in which a cell makes proteins; the type of protein produced is determined by the genetic code found on DNA
Punnett Square type of grid used to show the alleles of each parent and their offspring; the possible combinations of alleles that can come from certain genetic crosses
Ratio relation in degree or number between two similar things
Reagent a substance used in a chemical reaction to detect, measure, examine, or produce other substances
recessive allele trait that seems to disappear when two different genes for the same trait are present; “weaker” of two traits; phenotypic effect is not expressed in a heterozygote; the allele that becomes masked if a dominant allele is present
RNA a nucleic acid polymer which is transcribed from DNA by enzymes and serves as the template for translation of genes into proteins; (carries codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes)
sex-linked gene Genes that are carried by either sex chromosome
sexual reproduction a type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity; results in increasing genetic diversity in the offspring through mitosis and fertilization
sperm haploid sex cells formed in the male reproductive organs
Surface area The extent of a 2 dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary
Thymine fundamental component of DNA that is paired with Adenine
Trait distinguishing characteristic or quality: a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring; physical characteristics
transcription process by which the code for a protein is transferred from DNA to mRNA
translation the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Volume The amount of space within an object
zygote new diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism.
Replication making a copy of
Somatic cell “normal” cell - body cells not involved in reproduction
Synthesis making a new object out of parts
Homozygous having identical pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic
Created by: artisteacher