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Biology - Animals

Transport in animals

Single circulatory system Blood only passes through the heart once for each complete circuit of the body
Double circulatory system Blood passes through the heart twice for each complete circuit of the body
Fish - circulatory system Heart pumps blood to the gills (to pick up O2) and then through to the rest of the body to deliver O2 - single circuit
Mammals - circulatory system Heart is divided down the middle - right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs (to pick up O2). From the lungs it travels to the left side of the heart, which it pumps to the rest of the body. When blood returns to the heart it enters the right side.
Closed circulatory system All vertebrates- blood is enclosed inside blood vessels. Heart pumps blood into arteries - these branch out in to capillaries. Substances like O2 and C6H12O6 diffuse from the blood in the capillaries into the body cells -veins take blood to heart
Open circulatory system Some invertebrates- blood isn't enclosed all the time instead it flows freely through the body. Heart is segmented- contracts a wave, starting from back pumping blood into single main artery-opens up into blood cavity. Blood flows around organs- to heart
5 types of blood vessels Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules and Veins
Arteries Carry blood from the heart to rest of body. Walls are thick & muscular. Have elastic tissue to stretch and recoil as heart beats -helps to maintain HP. Inner lining (endothelium) is folded - artery can expand - helps to maintain HP. carry oxygenated blood
Arterioles Arteries branch into arterioles - much smaller than arteries. Have smooth muscle allowing them to expand and contract - controlling the amount of blood flowing to tissues
Capillaries Arterioles branch into capillaries - smallest of blood vessels. Substances like C6H12O6 and O2 are exchanged between cells and capillaries - adapted for efficient diffusion e.g. their walls are only one cell thick
Venules Capillaries connect to venules - have very thin walls that can contain some muscle cells. Venules join together to form veins.
Veins Take blood back to the heart under LP. Wide lumen with very little elastic or muscle tissue. Contain valves to stop backflow of blood. Blood flow helped by contraction of body muscles. All veins carry deoxygenated blood
Tissue Fluid Fluid surrounds cells in the tissues -made from substances that leave the blood plasma. Doesn't contain red blood cells or big proteins. Cells take in O2 and nutrients from tissue fluid and release metabolic waste. Capillary bed-substances move into fluid
Lymphatic system Smallest lymph vessels - lymph capillaries. Excess tissue fluid passes into lymph vessels- once inside called lymph. Valves in the lymph vessels stop lymph going backwards. Lymph gradually moves towards the main lymph vessels in thorax. Returned to blood
Red blood cell Blood. Red blood cells are too big to get through capillary walls into the tissue fluid.
White blood cells Blood, very few tissue fluid, lymph. Most white blood cells are in the lymph system -only enter tissue fluid when there's an infection
Platelets Blood. Only present in tissue fluid if the capillaries are damaged.
Proteins Blood, very few tissue fluid, only anti body lymph. Most plasma proteins are too big to get through capillary walls
Water Blood, tissue fluid, lymph. Tissue fluid and lymph have a higher water potential than blood
Dissolved substances Blood, tissue fluid, lymph. Solutes (e.g. salt) can move freely between blood, tissue fluid and lymph.
Route of blood in heart Superior vena cava, Right atrium, Atrioventricular valve, Right ventricle, Semi-lunar valve, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary vein, Left atrium, Atrioventricular valve, Left ventricle, Semi-lunar valve, Aorta
Valves stop backflow of blood Atrioventricular valve link the atria to the ventricles Semi-lunar link ventricles to pulmonary artery and aorta. Valves only open one way. High pressure behind a valve - forced open. High pressure in front of valve - forced shut
Cardiac cycle - stage one Ventricles relaxed. Atria contracts- decreasing volume, increasing pressure. Pushes blood into ventricles through atrioventricular valve. Slight increase in ventricular pressure and volume as ventricles receive ejected blood from contracting atria.
Cardiac cycle - stage two Atria relax. Ventricles contract - decreasing volume, increasing pressure. Pressure higher in ventricles than in atria - forces atrioventricular valves shut. High pressure in ventricles open semi lunar - blood is forced into pulmonary artery and aorta
Cardiac cycle - stage three Ventricles & atria both relax. Higher pressure in PA & aorta - semi lunar close. Atria fill with blood (increasing pressure) due to high pressure in vena cava & PV. As ventricles relax pressure falls below pressure in atria. AV open- blood to ventricles
lub - dub sound lub sound - atrioventricular valves closing dub sound - semi-lunar valves closing
Cardiac Muscle SAN (in wall of right atrium) - controls rhythm of heart - sends out waves of electrical activity. Causes right and left atria to contract at the same time. Non- conducting collagen tissue prevents waves being passed directly to ventricles- goes to AVN
Cardiac Muscle - bundle of his /AVN AVN responsible for passing waves of electrical activity to Bundle of His. Slight delay before AVN reacts to make sure atria contracts after atria have emptied. Bundle of His - group of muscle fibres - conducts waves to purkyne tissue.
Purkyne tissue Carries the waves of electrical activity into the muscular walls of the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract simultaneously from the bottom up.
ECG P wave - contraction of the atria. QRS complex - contraction of the ventricles. T wave - relaxation of the ventricles. Height of wave indicates how much electrical charge is passing through heart - bigger wave-more electrical charge - stronger contraction
Tachycardia Too fast heart beat
Bradycardia Too slow heart beat
Ectopic heartbeat An extra heartbeat, caused by early contraction of the atria, can also be caused by an early contraction of the ventricles
Hypertrophy Enlargement of the ventricle
Fibrillation Very irregular heartbeat - atria and ventricles lose rhythm and stop contracting properly
Flatline / cardiac arrest Atria and ventricles stop contracting - heart is no longer pumping - death.
Oxyhaemoglobin Red blood cells contain haemoglobin (Hb- large structure with quaternary structure. Each chain has a haem group which contains iron and gives Hb its red colour. Has a high affinity for O2. in lungs O2 joins to Fe in Hb to form oxyhaemoglobin - reversible
Oxyhaemoglobin equation Hb + 4O2 ⇌ HbO8 Haemoglobin + oxygen ⇌ oxyhaemoglobin
Haemoglobin saturation Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) is a measure of O2 concentration. Greater concentration of dissolves O2- higher partial pressure. O2 loads onto haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin where there's a high pO2 - unloads it's O2 where there's a lower PO2
Dissociation curves Shows how saturated the Hb with O2 at any given partial pressure. Graph is S-Shaped - shape alters in a way that makes it easier for other molecules to join too. As Hb starts to become saturated, it gets harder for more O2 to join. This makes the s shape
Fetal haemoglobin Higher affinity for O2 than Hb. Fetus gets O2 from mother's blood across placenta. O2 saturation has decreased by time mother's blood reaches placenta (been used) Fetus gets enough O2 to survive. For fetus to get enough O2 it needs higher affinity.
The Bohr Effect When CO2 levels increase the dissociation curve 'shifts' right, showing that more O2 is released from the blood (because the lower the saturation of Hb with O2, the more O2 is released.)
CO2 concentration affects O2 unloading Most CO2 diffuses into red blood cells. Reacts with H2O to form carbonic acid, catalysed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic acid dissociates to give H+ ions and HCO3- ions. Increase in H+ ions causes HbO8 to unload O2 - takes in H+.
HCO3 ions diffuse out of red blood cell Diffuse out of the red blood cell, transported in the blood plasma. To compensate for the loss of HCO3 ions from the red blood cell Cl- ions diffuse in - called chloride shift - prevents any change in pH that could affect the cells. Lungs-recombine to CO2
Created by: Mia:)



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