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Motion

Vocabulary & Questions

TermDefinition
Reference point a place that tells where you are; used to compare motion
Distance the amount of space between two points.
Displacement the distance between the final and starting position
Motion the process of changing position
Speed describes how fast something is moving (s= d/t)
Velocity the speed of an object in a particular direction
Acceleration the change in velocity divided by the time it takes to occur
Inertia measures an object’s tendency to resist changing its motion. The more inertia an object has, the harder it is to start the object moving or to slow it down. Inertia depends on the amount of matter in an object, or its mass.
Friction is a contact force that resists motion between two touching surfaces
Air resistance a frictional force between air and objects moving through it
Gravity is the pull that all matter exerts on other matter
Weight is the force of gravity on an object on the planet or moon where the object is. Weight is a force and is measured in Newton's
Mass is the amount of matter in an object
Force a push or pull on an object
Contact force a push/pull that one object applies to another object that is touching it.
Non-contact force a force that one object applies to another object without touching it.
Balanced Force forces that cancel each other out. If the forces acting on something are balanced its motion doesn’t change.
Unbalanced Forces cause motion and change
Newton's First Law of Motion- an object will remain at rest, or keep moving in a straight line with constant speed, unless an unbalanced force acts on it. Newton’s first law of motion means that an object can speed up, slow down or change direction only if a force acts on it.
Newton's Second Law of Motion an unbalanced force acting on an object causes the object to accelerate in the direction of the force.
Newtons Third Law of Motion- when a force is applied on an object, an equal force is applied by the object in the opposite direction.
Speed = distance / time
Average speed = the total distance traveled divided by the total time it took.
You are riding your bike for 15 km. It takes you half of an hour to complete the ride. What is your avenge speed? (s= d/t) 0.5 km/min
I drove 52 km north then turned west and drove 44 km. What is my total distance traveled?   96 km
Name one time that you would have a large displacement and one time you would have a displacement of 0 meters. large displacement: sprinting no displacement: standing
Calculate the speed of a truck that traveled 455 miles in 6 hours? 75.8 mi/hr (that guy is speeding)
An ant crawled 2 m in 90 seconds; what was his speed? 0.02 m/sec 2.22 cm/sec
James ran the 200m dash in 25.4; what was his speed? 7.87 m/sec
A triathlete completed the Ironman Triathlon in 7 hours, 37 minutes. What was his/her average speed over the total distance? Ironman Triathlon: 2.4-mile (3.86 km) swim, a 112-mile (180.25 km) bicycle ride and a marathon 26.22-mile (42.20 km) run 18.43 mi/hr
In the beginning of my trip I have a velocity of 12 km/h east and in the end of my trip I had a velocity of 42 km/h east. The change in velocity took a hour and a half to occur. What is my acceleration? (a=Δv/t) 0.33 mi/m or 19.8 mi/h
What does a horizontal line represent on a distance-time graph? Constant Speed
What does a diagonal line rising steeply represent on a distance-time graph? Fast movement
What does a diagonal line going back to zero represent on a distance-time graph? Going back to start
On which axis is time placed on a distance-time graph? X-axis
On which axis is distance placed on a distance-time graph? Y-axis
Mechanical Advantage = output force/input force
Inclined plane flat, sloped surface
Pulley grooved wheel with a rope or a cable wrapped around it.
Fixed Pulley can only change the direction of the force
Movable Pulley a pulley attached to the object being lifted. Decreases the force needed to lift an object but the distance over which the force acts is greater.
Mechanical advantage of Pulleys = number of sections of rope pulling up the object
what are the 2 families of simple machine? The inclined plane family -The lever family
list all the simple machines in the inclined plane family inclined plane, wedge, screw
list all the simple machines in the lever family Lever, wheel and axle, and pulley
Lever a stiff bar that balances or turns on a fulcrum
Wheel and axle something that reduces the friction of moving something
pulley something that uses a rope and can change the direction of a force
inclined plane a slanting surface where one end is higher than the other
screw an inclined plane wrapped around a pole
wedge something that can split an object apart
tweezers is a lever
seesaw is a lever
ax a wedge
needle a wedge
flagpole a pulley
knife wedge
doorknob lever
wagon wheel and axle and lever
scissors wedge and lever
hammer a lever
slide a inclined plane
swing set a pulley
Newton's first law an object moving at a constant velocity keeps moving at that velocity unless a net force acts on it
Elastic potential energy is energy, attained from a stretch or compressed object
Acceleration the rate of change of velocity
Velocity describes both speed and direction of an object
Speed only indicates how fast something is moving
average speed the total distance traveled divided by the total time of travel
Constant speed the speed that does not vary or change
Speed the rate of change in position
Energy the ability to do work
Kinetic Energy energy in motion
Potential Energy depends on the object height, and mass
Force a push or pull one body exerts on another
Balanced forces force on an object that are equal in size and opposite in direction
Net force on an object always changes the velocity of an object
Inertia the tendency of an object to resist any change in motion
Friction the force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching each other
Gravity a force every object in the universe exerts a force on every other object
Weight the measure of the force of gravity
Newton the unit to describe the force exerted by weight
Power work/time
newtons second law a net force acting acting on object causes the object to accelerate in the direction of the force
Newtons second law can be expressed using the following equation Force = Mass * Acceleration (F=MA)
gravity causes all falling object to accelerate to the ground at the same rate of 9.8m/s2
Air resistance the force air exerts on a moving object, this force acts in the opposite direction to that of an object motion
terminal velocity the highest velocity that will be reached by a falling object
Newtons third law to every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force
work exerting a force over a distance
work = force * distance
Power is the rate (or how fast)work can be done is the rate (or how fast)work can be done
Power= = work/time
Created by: jreese2323