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# Motion

### Vocabulary & Questions

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Reference point | a place that tells where you are; used to compare motion |

Distance | the amount of space between two points. |

Displacement | the distance between the final and starting position |

Motion | the process of changing position |

Speed | describes how fast something is moving (s= d/t) |

Velocity | the speed of an object in a particular direction |

Acceleration | the change in velocity divided by the time it takes to occur |

Inertia | measures an object’s tendency to resist changing its motion. The more inertia an object has, the harder it is to start the object moving or to slow it down. Inertia depends on the amount of matter in an object, or its mass. |

Friction | is a contact force that resists motion between two touching surfaces |

Air resistance | a frictional force between air and objects moving through it |

Gravity | is the pull that all matter exerts on other matter |

Weight | is the force of gravity on an object on the planet or moon where the object is. Weight is a force and is measured in Newton's |

Mass | is the amount of matter in an object |

Force | a push or pull on an object |

Contact force | a push/pull that one object applies to another object that is touching it. |

Non-contact force | a force that one object applies to another object without touching it. |

Balanced Force | forces that cancel each other out. If the forces acting on something are balanced its motion doesn’t change. |

Unbalanced Forces | cause motion and change |

Newton's First Law of Motion- | an object will remain at rest, or keep moving in a straight line with constant speed, unless an unbalanced force acts on it. Newton’s first law of motion means that an object can speed up, slow down or change direction only if a force acts on it. |

Newton's Second Law of Motion | an unbalanced force acting on an object causes the object to accelerate in the direction of the force. |

Newtons Third Law of Motion- | when a force is applied on an object, an equal force is applied by the object in the opposite direction. |

Speed = | distance / time |

Average speed = | the total distance traveled divided by the total time it took. |

You are riding your bike for 15 km. It takes you half of an hour to complete the ride. What is your avenge speed? (s= d/t) | 0.5 km/min |

I drove 52 km north then turned west and drove 44 km. What is my total distance traveled? | 96 km |

Name one time that you would have a large displacement and one time you would have a displacement of 0 meters. | large displacement: sprinting no displacement: standing |

Calculate the speed of a truck that traveled 455 miles in 6 hours? | 75.8 mi/hr (that guy is speeding) |

An ant crawled 2 m in 90 seconds; what was his speed? | 0.02 m/sec 2.22 cm/sec |

James ran the 200m dash in 25.4; what was his speed? | 7.87 m/sec |

A triathlete completed the Ironman Triathlon in 7 hours, 37 minutes. What was his/her average speed over the total distance? Ironman Triathlon: 2.4-mile (3.86 km) swim, a 112-mile (180.25 km) bicycle ride and a marathon 26.22-mile (42.20 km) run | 18.43 mi/hr |

In the beginning of my trip I have a velocity of 12 km/h east and in the end of my trip I had a velocity of 42 km/h east. The change in velocity took a hour and a half to occur. What is my acceleration? (a=Δv/t) | 0.33 mi/m or 19.8 mi/h |

What does a horizontal line represent on a distance-time graph? | Constant Speed |

What does a diagonal line rising steeply represent on a distance-time graph? | Fast movement |

What does a diagonal line going back to zero represent on a distance-time graph? | Going back to start |

On which axis is time placed on a distance-time graph? | X-axis |

On which axis is distance placed on a distance-time graph? | Y-axis |

Mechanical Advantage = | output force/input force |

Inclined plane | flat, sloped surface |

Pulley | grooved wheel with a rope or a cable wrapped around it. |

Fixed Pulley | can only change the direction of the force |

Movable Pulley | a pulley attached to the object being lifted. Decreases the force needed to lift an object but the distance over which the force acts is greater. |

Mechanical advantage of Pulleys = | number of sections of rope pulling up the object |

what are the 2 families of simple machine? | The inclined plane family -The lever family |

list all the simple machines in the inclined plane family | inclined plane, wedge, screw |

list all the simple machines in the lever family | Lever, wheel and axle, and pulley |

Lever | a stiff bar that balances or turns on a fulcrum |

Wheel and axle | something that reduces the friction of moving something |

pulley | something that uses a rope and can change the direction of a force |

inclined plane | a slanting surface where one end is higher than the other |

screw | an inclined plane wrapped around a pole |

wedge | something that can split an object apart |

tweezers | is a lever |

seesaw | is a lever |

ax | a wedge |

needle | a wedge |

flagpole | a pulley |

knife | wedge |

doorknob | lever |

wagon | wheel and axle and lever |

scissors | wedge and lever |

hammer | a lever |

slide | a inclined plane |

swing set | a pulley |

Newton's first law | an object moving at a constant velocity keeps moving at that velocity unless a net force acts on it |

Elastic potential energy | is energy, attained from a stretch or compressed object |

Acceleration | the rate of change of velocity |

Velocity | describes both speed and direction of an object |

Speed | only indicates how fast something is moving |

average speed | the total distance traveled divided by the total time of travel |

Constant speed | the speed that does not vary or change |

Speed | the rate of change in position |

Energy | the ability to do work |

Kinetic Energy | energy in motion |

Potential Energy | depends on the object height, and mass |

Force | a push or pull one body exerts on another |

Balanced forces | force on an object that are equal in size and opposite in direction |

Net force | on an object always changes the velocity of an object |

Inertia | the tendency of an object to resist any change in motion |

Friction | the force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching each other |

Gravity | a force every object in the universe exerts a force on every other object |

Weight | the measure of the force of gravity |

Newton | the unit to describe the force exerted by weight |

Power | work/time |

newtons second law | a net force acting acting on object causes the object to accelerate in the direction of the force |

Newtons second law | can be expressed using the following equation Force = Mass * Acceleration (F=MA) |

gravity causes all falling object to accelerate to the ground at the same rate of | 9.8m/s2 |

Air resistance | the force air exerts on a moving object, this force acts in the opposite direction to that of an object motion |

terminal velocity | the highest velocity that will be reached by a falling object |

Newtons third law | to every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force |

work | exerting a force over a distance |

work = | force * distance |

Power is the rate (or how fast)work can be done | is the rate (or how fast)work can be done |

Power= | = work/time |