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8 CK Chem of food

8 CK SCIENCE Chemistry of Food & Respiration - COMPLETE

TermDefinition
anthropos [G] man, human being—(e.g. anthropology, misanthrope)
organic compound any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
fermentation An anaerobic pathway that produces ethyl alcohol in plants and lactic acid in animals
passive transport a movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input
Enzyme A protein molecule used as a catalyst in chemical reaction
Fermentation An anaerobic pathway that produces ethyl alcohol in plants and lactic acid in animals
Glucose (C6H12O6) A simple sugar composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen.
Carbohydrate A simple sugar used for cell building, energy stores, and usable energy
genus [L] kind, origin (e.g. generic, congenital)
inorganic compound any compound that is not organic compound. Some simple compounds which contain carbon are usually considered inorganic. These include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, carbides, and thiocyanates.
metabolism the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life
photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water; generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct
Catalyst A chemical compound that changes a chemical reaction without being changed itself
Aerobic A metabolic pathway utilizing oxygen that converts glucose into ATP
Anaerobic A metabolic pathway that occurs in the absence of oxygen, also called fermentation
Chloroplast An organelle of the cell that specializes in photosynthesis
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) The main energy carrier in cells, produced by aerobic respiration.
Organic Chemical compounds that contain the element Carbon, often from living organisms
Protein a large molecule used for cell building (i.e. muscle cells) and other cellular functions
Fats A greasy or oily compound used for energy stores and cell building (i.e. cell membrane)
respiration a process in living organisms involving the production of energy, typically with the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide from the oxidation of complex organic substances
carbohydrate A simple sugar used for cell building, energy stores, and usable energy
mixture a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.
osmosis a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
active transport the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy
sanguis [L] blood—(e.g. sanguine)
diffusion the intermingling of substances by the natural movement of their particles
endocytosis A process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell
equilibrium is the point at which the concentrations of reactants and products do not change with time. It appears as though the reaction has stopped but in fact the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal so reactants and products are being created at t
exocytosis A process of cellular secretion or excretion in which substances contained in vesicles are discharged from the cell by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the outer cell membrane.
Created by: artisteacher