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Improving plants

lecture 19

Chromosomes control inheritance
chromosomes are made of DNA and protein
a nucleotide is made of a phosphate a sugar and a base
most cells are diploid
different form of a gene are called alleles
if a species has more than two copies of a gene it is called polyploids
qualitative traits are controlled by one gene...seed colour
quantitative traits ... are controlled by many traits...height, yield
meiosis reduces genetic content by half
hybridisation means combining different varieties of an organism
how many generations does it take for a plant to become uniform 6
hybrid vigour or heterosis refers to a plant which has enhanced traits
genotype genetic makeup
phenotype the interaction of the genotype with the environment
heretibility is the proportion of phenotype controlled by genetic factors
a gene gun is a technique which uses microscopic gold particles to deliver genes into target cells
genes can be transferred to a vector using a bacteria
GMO genetically modified plants
a crop with more than one new transgenic trait is called a Stacked trait variety
transgenic organisms are often resistant to insects and herbicides
Concerns of GMO foods include health and safety, problems with new varieties spreading into maincrop and pest resistance
traditional crops take a long time to breed, many genes are transferred and only genes from one species can be used
GMO crops take a short time to breed, few genes are transferred and can use genes from any species. not allowed in organic agriculture
Created by: MKHealy