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Biology Exam #1

What is the difference between and a base? Acid is anything 0-6 on the pH scale and a base is anything 7-14
What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning? inductive reasoning- having specific facts coming to a general conclusion deductive reasoning- having general facts coming to a specific conclusion
What are the attributes of life? exhibits movement, achieves growth, reproduces, comes from similar preexisting life, has similar chemical makeup, is composed of cells, responds to stimuli, and requires energy
What is the difference between physical change and chemical change? physical change- when its form change but its chemical makeup is the same chemical change- when its chemical makeup is change (i.e. burning wood)
What are the 3 types of bonds? Ionic, Peptide, and Hydrogen
What is Hydrogen bonding? a weak bond between 1 hydrogen and either 1 nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine bond. prominent in water
What is Ionic bonding? a bond between a positive and negative charge
What is Peptide bonding? a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
What is glucose? a simple 6 carbon sugar
What are enzymes? a protein molecule that is produced by living cells to catalyse a specific reaction
What do enzymes do? speed up reactions, tear things down, build things up
What are enzymes made up of? amino acids
What is a sterol? a lipid composed of a carbon backbone with 4 carbon rings and a side chain of carbon atoms
What do sterols do? causes a reaction in your body to start growing
What are sterols made up of? lipids
What is Ribose? a sugar in RNA and Glucose
What do Ribose do? naturally occurring sugar from glucose
What are Ribose made up of? 5 carbon simple sugar
What is the difference between mono and disaccharide? mono- a simple sugar disaccharide- a sugar composed of 2 monosaccharides
What do amino groups make up? amino acids
What do amino acids make up? proteins
How many amino acids are there? 20
What is the basic unit of inheritance? genes
What is a monomer? a molecule that consist of 1 unit and can combine to make more complex things
What is the basic unit for proteins? amino acids
What is the difference between RNA and DNA? RNA has 1 strand of hydrogen bonds DNA has 2
What are the 3 different types of RNA? mRNA tRNA and rRNA
What microscope allows you to see in 3D? Scanning electron microscope
what is the difference between scanning tunnelling microscope and transmission electron microscope? SEM lets you see in 3d TEM lets you see 2d TEM transmits electrons on the object SEM scans the object
What is cell fraction? a process to separate different parts of the cell to study a specific organelle
What does the smooth er do? produce sterols and break down toxins
What does the Golgi apparatus do? prepares substances to be recreated by cells
What does the cytoskeleton do? provides structure for the cell
What does cilia do? provide locomotion or move substances over the surface of the cell
What does flagellum do? provide locomotion or move substances over the surface of the cell
What do lysosomes do? breaks down ingested substances, old organelles, and cytoplasmic molecules
What does rough er do? produces proteins
What does the mitochondria do? transforms energy stored into sugars and usable energy
What is the difference between saturated and non saturated fat? non saturated fats are liquid are room temperature and saturated fats are solid at room temperature
What are examples are saturated and unsaturated fat? Saturated-butter Unsaturated-natural peanut butter
What is Gap junctions? The space between cels; use for communication
What are the 3 types of tonics? Hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic
What is hypotonic? net movement of water in the cell
What is hypertonic? net movement of water out side of the cell
What is isotonic? no net movement of water
What is the phases of interphase? G1, Phase and G2 phase
What phase do cells spend most of their time in? Interphase
What is cytokinesis? the cytoplasmic division of a cell in mitosis/meiosis
What happens to the light reaction during photosynthesis? the light dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP into the energy carriers ATP by NADH
What are the products of photosynthesis? glucose (C6H12O6) and 6 oxygen
What organisms do photosynthesis? plants, algae,
What is the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs? autotrophs make their own food to gain energy heterotrophs eat autotrophs to gain energy
What does the chloroplast do? Reflect green light, and photosynthesis occurs.
What is the stomata? the wholes on the bottom of the leaf that allows it to do gas exchange
What is sub strait level phosphorylation? ATP is made in the Kreb's cycle
What is oxidative phosphorylation? ATP is made in the ETC cycle
What is photo phosphorylation? ATP is made in photosynthesis
What does the light dependent phase use to create ATP? Photons of light
What does the energy come for photosynthesis? light energy
What does the energy come from in the light independent phase? From the light in the light dependent phase
What is in the nucleus of an atom? Protons and Neutrons
What make up tissues? cells
What Community vs Ecosystem? Ecosystem- all the living and non living parts Community- all the living thing
What is biology? The study of life
What is the solute vs solvent? Solute- the thing that is dissolving the object Solvent- the thing being dissolved
Where do acids and base make? water and salt
Do all plants do photosynthesis? Yes
What reactants of photosynthesis? CO2 and water
What do hormones do? they trigger a response in the body
How many total chromosomes are in the body? 46
What types of respiration do glycolysis? CAR, Alcohol fermentation, and Lactic Acid
What do plants do? CAR and photosynthesis
What do the ETC go through? multiple proteins
What hydrolysis? using water to split molecules
What is dehydration? taking water out to bring molecules together
What do our body use ATP for? energy
What is a catalyst? an enzyme that speeds up a chemical reaction?
Which types of respiration does glycolysis? all of them
What does glucose break down to in Glycolysis? Puruvate
How much ATP is made in each phase? Glycolysis and Kreb's cycle 2 each ETC 32
Created by: tom15158



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