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antimicrobials

QuestionAnswer
Toxicity of penicillin Coombs + (hemolytic anemia)
Clinical use of penicillin G Streptococcal, pneumococcal, meningococcal infections, syphillis
Probenicid interacts will all beta lactams except ___. It causes them to ____ levels of Beta lactams aztreonam (monbactam). Causes increase in the serum level of the antibiotic
Naficillin is used to treat MSSA (bone, joint, UTI, respiratory, endocarditis)
Other drugs in the same class as nafcillin are ___, ____. Oral forms that are similar include Oxacillin, methicillin. Oral forms included cloxacillin, dicloxacillin
Methecillin is used rarely because of interstitial nephritis
Ampicillin and amoxicillin are ___. Which one is given orally? What beta lactamase inhibitor is used for each? aminopenicillins. Amoxillicin = oral, Ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam,
What beta lactam can decrease hormonal contraceptive effectiveness? Amoxicillin
Clinical use of amoxicillin/ampicillin "Amped penicillin" penicillin spectrum + gram negative: Respiratory tract infections (otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia), skin infections (bite wounds); HELPS kille enterococci (Hemophilus, e. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella
Ticarcillin (class) and Piperacillin (class). They need to use a beta lactamase inhibitor. What are they? Ticaracillin = carboxypenicillin, Piperacillin = ureidopenicillin. Tircacillin = clavulanate, Piperacillin uses tazobactam.
Ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin are used for antipseudomonal agents and gram negative rods, especially enterobacteria. (TCP = takes care of pseudomonas)
1st generation = , 2nd generation = , 3rd generation cephalosporins, 4th = cefepime 1st generation = (cefazolin, cephalexin), 2nd generation = cefotoxin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, 3rd generation = ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, 4= cefepime
Side effects of cephalosporins: penicillin allergy 10-15%, Bleeding or disulfiram reaction in those cephalosporins with methylthiotetrazole group (cefotetan, cefoperazone, cefamandole)
1st generation cephalosporin (name 2). Good for: cefazolin, cephalexin. surgical prophylaxis, cellulitis. Good for staph/strep. 1st generations are first on the PEcKing order: Proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella
2nd generation cephalosporin (name 3). Good for: Cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefuroxime. HENs are 2nd in the PEcKing order: Haemophilus, Enterobacter, Neisseria, proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella, Serratia
3rd generation cephalosporin (name 3). Good for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime. Serious gram-negative infections resistant to other B-lactams. (cross BBB).
For pseudomonas: use Ceftazidime, cefepime
Hemolytic toxicity Penicillin (Coombs + )
Clinical use of penicillin G Streptococcal, pneumococcal, meningococcal infections, syphillis
Probenicid interacts will all beta lactams except ___. It causes them to ____ levels of Beta lactams aztreonam (monbactam). Causes increase in the serum level of the antibiotic
Naficillin is used to treat MSSA (bone, joint, UTI, respiratory, endocarditis)
Other drugs in the same class as nafcillin are ___, ____. Oral forms that are similar include Oxacillin, methicillin. Oral forms included cloxacillin, dicloxacillin
Methecillin is used rarely because of interstitial nephritis
Ampicillin and amoxicillin are ___. Which one is given orally? What beta lactamase inhibitor is used for each? aminopenicillins. Amoxillicin = oral, Ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam,
What beta lactam can decrease hormonal contraceptive effectiveness? Amoxicillin
Clinical use of amoxicillin/ampicillin "Amped penicillin" penicillin spectrum + gram negative: Respiratory tract infections (otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia), skin infections (bite wounds); HELPS kille enterococci (Hemophilus, e. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella
Ticarcillin (class) and Piperacillin (class). They need to use a beta lactamase inhibitor. What are they? Ticaracillin = carboxypenicillin, Piperacillin = ureidopenicillin. Tircacillin = clavulanate, Piperacillin uses tazobactam.
Ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin are used for antipseudomonal agents and gram negative rods, especially enterobacteria. (TCP = takes care of pseudomonas)
1st generation = , 2nd generation = , 3rd generation cephalosporins, 4th = cefepime 1st generation = (cefazolin, cephalexin), 2nd generation = cefotoxin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, 3rd generation = ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, 4= cefepime
Side effects of cephalosporins: penicillin allergy 10-15%, Bleeding or disulfiram reaction in those cephalosporins with methylthiotetrazole group (cefotetan, cefoperazone, cefamandole)
1st generation cephalosporin (name 2). Good for: cefazolin, cephalexin. surgical prophylaxis, cellulitis. Good for staph/strep. 1st generations are first on the PEcKing order: Proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella
2nd generation cephalosporin (name 3). Good for: Cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefuroxime. HENs are 2nd in the PEcKing order: Haemophilus, Enterobacter, Neisseria, proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella, Serratia
3rd generation cephalosporin (name 3). Good for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime. Serious gram-negative infections resistant to other B-lactams. (cross BBB).
For pseudomonas: use Ceftazidime, cefepime
Hemolytic toxicity Penicillin (Coombs + )
Clinical use of penicillin G Streptococcal, pneumococcal, meningococcal infections, syphillis
Probenicid interacts will all beta lactams except ___. It causes them to ____ levels of Beta lactams aztreonam (monbactam). Causes increase in the serum level of the antibiotic
Naficillin is used to treat MSSA (bone, joint, UTI, respiratory, endocarditis)
Other drugs in the same class as nafcillin are ___, ____. Oral forms that are similar include Oxacillin, methicillin. Oral forms included cloxacillin, dicloxacillin
Methecillin is used rarely because of interstitial nephritis
Ampicillin and amoxicillin are ___. Which one is given orally? What beta lactamase inhibitor is used for each? aminopenicillins. Amoxillicin = oral, Ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam,
What beta lactam can decrease hormonal contraceptive effectiveness? Amoxicillin
Clinical use of amoxicillin/ampicillin "Amped penicillin" penicillin spectrum + gram negative: Respiratory tract infections (otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia), skin infections (bite wounds); HELPS kille enterococci (Hemophilus, e. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella
Ticarcillin (class) and Piperacillin (class). They need to use a beta lactamase inhibitor. What are they? Ticaracillin = carboxypenicillin, Piperacillin = ureidopenicillin. Tircacillin = clavulanate, Piperacillin uses tazobactam.
Ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin are used for antipseudomonal agents and gram negative rods, especially enterobacteria. (TCP = takes care of pseudomonas)
1st generation = , 2nd generation = , 3rd generation cephalosporins, 4th = cefepime 1st generation = (cefazolin, cephalexin), 2nd generation = cefotoxin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, 3rd generation = ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, 4= cefepime
Side effects of cephalosporins: penicillin allergy 10-15%, Bleeding or disulfiram reaction in those cephalosporins with methylthiotetrazole group (cefotetan, cefoperazone, cefamandole)
1st generation cephalosporin (name 2). Good for: cefazolin, cephalexin. surgical prophylaxis, cellulitis. Good for staph/strep. 1st generations are first on the PEcKing order: Proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella
2nd generation cephalosporin (name 3). Good for: Cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefuroxime. HENs are 2nd in the PEcKing order: Haemophilus, Enterobacter, Neisseria, proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella, Serratia
3rd generation cephalosporin (name 3). Good for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime. Serious gram-negative infections resistant to other B-lactams. (cross BBB).
For pseudomonas: use Ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam
Beta lactams that display no cross-reactivity include Monobactams (aztreonam) and some cephalosporins (10-15%)
For patients wtih renal insufficiency that can't tolerate aminoglycosides, use ___. aztreonam
Aztreonam is used for: Gram negative rods (enterobacter, pseudomonas); NO Gram positive/anaerobic activity
Impinem (class) is used with ___ because it is a dehydropeptidase inhibitor. Dehydropeptidase increases/decreases imipenim? Carapenem. Use wtih cilastatin. Cilastatin inactivates renal tubules and prevents degradation of imipenem.
Clinical use of impenem: gram-positive coci, gram negative rods, anaerobes. Drug of choice for enterobacter. use for life saveing (because of negative side effects)
Meropenem is unlike imipenem because it is stable to dihydropeptidase and has less severe side effects
Toxicity of imipenem GI distress, skin rash, CNS toxicity (seizures)
Which cephalosporin has the greatest gram negative coverage? Generations 3,4
Which cephalosporin has the greatest gram + coverage? Generations 1, 4
Which cephalosporin covers anaerobes Generation 2
Protein synthesis inhibitors (30s) TAG = Tetracyclines, Aminoglycosides
Protein syntheis inhibitors (50s) CCLLEan =Clindomycin, Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Lincomycin, Linezolid
Inhibit formation of initiaion complex and cause misreading of mRNA. aminoglycosides
Requires O2 for uptake, therefore ineffective against ____. Aminoglycosides
Synergistic with B-lactam antibiotics Aminoglycosides
Clinical use: aminoglycosides Severe gram negative rods (pseudomonas, enterobacter, staph
Synergistic with beta lactams aminoglycosides (Amp-gent)
Bowel surgery Neomycin (aminoglycoside)
Toxicity: aminoglycosides Nephrotoxicity (cephalosporins, Ototoxicity (loop diuretics), Teratogen
Aminoglycoside types "GNATS" Gentomycin, Neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin, streptomycin
Aminoglycoside used for TB Streptomycin
Mechanism: Vancomycin Inhibits cell wall mucopeptide formation by binding D-ala D-ala portion of cell wall. Bactericidal. Resistance occurs with amino acid change to D-ala
Vancomycin = BC/BS, Aminoglycosides BC/BS? both BC
Tetracycline types Tetracycline, doxycycline, demeclocycline, minocycline
Mechanism: tetracycline Bacteriostatic; Bind to 30s and prevent attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA. limited CNS penetration
Limited CNS penetration Tetracycline
Which tetracycline can be used in patients with renal failure? doxycycline
What can't you take with tetracyclines? Milke, antacids, iron-containng preparations (divalent cations inhibit absorption into gut
Clincal uses for tetracycline VACUUM The BedRoom that looks like a cyclone- Vibrio, Acne, Chlamydia, Ureaplasma, Urealyticum, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Tularemia, H. pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia
Toxicity: Tetracylcines GI distress, discoloration of teeth, inhibition of bone growth in children, photosensitivity, contraindicated in pregnancy
Macrolide types erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin
Mechanism: macrolides Inhibit protein synthesis by blocking translocation (moving the peptide strand to the p site); it binds to 23S rRNA of teh 50s ribosomal unit; bacteriostatic
Clinical uses: macrolides Atypical pneumonia (mycoplasma, legionella, chlamydia, Neisseria), typical (s. pneumoniae), gram positive cocci
Toxicity: macrolides GI distress (motilin receptors), acute cholestatic hepatitis, eosinophila, skin rashes.
Increases serum concentration of theophyllines, anticoagulants, diazepam Erythromycin
Mechanism:Chloramphenicol Inhibits 50s peptidyltransferase activity; bacteriostatic (peptidyltransferase = adds peptide to amino acid in A site"
Clinical use: chloramphenicol meningitis (H. influenzae, Neisseria, S. pneumoniae)
Toxicity: Chloramphenicol Anemia (dose dependent), aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome (lack UDP-glucoronyl transferase)
Mechanism: Clindamycin Blocks peptide bond formation at 50S ribosomal subunit
Clinical use:clindamycin treat anaerobic infections (bacteroides fragilis, clostridium perfringens) ==> aspiration, abcess
Toxicity: clindamycin C. dificile, fever, diarrhea
Sulfonamide allergy: what not to give furosemide, thiazides, acetazolamide
blocks dihydropteroate synthetase sulfonamides (can't produce nucleotides)
blocks dihydrofolate reductase trimethoprim
Sulfonamides: clinical use Gram positive, gram negative, Nocardia, chlamydia
Sulfonamides: toxicity Hypersensitivity reactions, hemolysis of G6PD, nephrotoxicity (tubulointerstitial nephritis, photosensitivity, kernicterus in infants, displace other drugs from albumin (warfin)
TMP-SMX: clinical use recurrent UTIs, shigella, salmonella, PCP
TMP-SMX: toxicity Megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia
INH: mechanism Decreases synthesis of mycolic acid
INH: clinical use TB prophylaxis, treatment
INH: toxicity Neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity (INH = injures neurons, hepatocytes), pyridoxine (B6) can prevent neurotoxicity
Rifampin: mechanism Inhibits DNA dependent RNA polymerause
Rifampin: clinical use TB, delays resistance to dapsone in leprosay, used for meningococcal prophylaxis in patients with Hib contact
Rifampin: toxicity Hepatotoxicty, (increase p-450, orange body fluids)
4 R's of rifampin RNA polymerase inhibitor, Revs up microsomeal P-450, Red/orange body fluids, Resistance if used alone
Treatment of MRSA, VRE MRSA= vanco, VRE = linezoild, streptogramins (quiinupristin/dalfopristin)
Nalidixic acid is a___ quinolone
Fluoroquinolones: Mechanism inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II).
Fluoroquinolones: Clinical use Gram negative rods of urinary/GI tracts (pseudomonas, neisseria, gram positive)
Fluoroquinolones: toxicity GI upset, superinfections, skin rash, headache dizziness. Contraindicated in pregnant women. Must not be taken with antacids, tendonitis, tendon rupture in adults, leg cramps, myalgias in kids.
Metronidazole: mechanism forms toxic metabolites in the bacterial cell that damage DNA.
Metronidazole: clinical use GET GAP on the Metro (Giardia, Entamoeba, trichomonas, Gardenerella, Anaerobes, H.Pylori
Metronidazole: toxicity Disulfiram-like reaction, metallic taste
Polymyxins: mechanism bind to cell membranes of bacteria and disrupt their osmotic properties. (positive; act like detergent)
Polymyxins: clinical use resistant gram-negative infections
Polymyxins: toxicity neurotoxicity, acute renal tubular necrosis
Prophylaxis: M. tuberculae, M. avium intracellulare Isoniazid, Azithromycin
M. tuberculosis treatmetns INH-SPIRE (Streptomycin, pyrazinamide, isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol)
M. avium intracellulare Azithromycin, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin
M. leprae treatments Dapsone, rifampin, clofazimine
2nd line therapy of TB cycloserine (2nd-line therapy)
Side effects of TB durgs hepatotoxicity
Side effects: optic neuropathy (red-green color blindness) ethambutol
Endocarditis with surgical or dental procedures prophylaxis Penicillins
PCP pneumonia prophylaxis TMP-SMX, aerosolized pentamidine
History of recurrent UTIs prophylaxis TMP-SMX
Syphills prophylaxis Benzathine penicillin G
Gonorrhea prophylaxis ceftriaxone
Meningococcal infection prophylaxis Rifampin (drug of choice), minocycline
Penicillins/cephalosporin drug resistance B-lactamase cleavage of b-lactam ring, altered PBP in cases of MRSA or penicillin-resistant S. pneumonia
Aminoglycosides drug resistance Modification via acetylation, adenylation, phosphorylation
Vancomycin drug resistance Terminal D-ala of cell wall component replaced with D-lac; decreased affinity
Chloramphenicol drug resistance modification via acetylation
Macrolides drug resistance methylation of rRNA near erythomycin's ribosome binding site
Tetracylcin drug resistance Decreased uptake, increased transport out of cell
Sulfonamides Altered enzymes (bacterial dihydropterate synthetase), decreased uptake, or increased PABA synthesis,
Quinolones Altered gyrase or reduced uptake
Antifungals that bind to ergosterol include: Mechansim: Antifungals: nystatin, amphotericin B. They bind to ergosterol and form pores that allow leakage of electrolytes
Amphotericin: Clinical use Wide spectrum systemic mycoses: Crypto, Histo, Blasto, Coccidio, Candida, Mucor, Aspergillis. Use intrathecally for meningitis
For meningitis with systemic fungi what drug do you administer? Amphotericin, intrathecally
Amphotericin: toxicity Fever/chills (Shake and bake), hypotension, nephrotoxicity, arrythmia, anemia, IV phlebitis (amphoterrible).
What can reduce toxicity of amphotericin? Hydration reduces nephrotoxicity, liposomal reduces toxicity
Nystatin: clinical use "swish and swallow" for oral candida; topical for diaper rash; (too toxic for systemic use)
Antifungals that bind ergosterol:, Antifungals that block synthesis of ergosterol Antifungals that bind: amphotericin B, nystatin, Antifungals that block synthesis: azoles, terbinafine
antifungals used for systemic mycoses amphotericin B, azoles, flucytosine (use with ampho)
Fluconazole use: cryptococcal (Crosses BBB unlike amphotericin), candidal infections
Ketoconazole use: Local infections of Blastomycoses, Coccidio, Histoplasmosis, Candida albicans
Clotrimazole use: Topical fungal infections
Micanzole use: Topical fungal infections
Azoles: toxicity Hormone synthesis inhibition (gynecomastia), liver dysfunction (inhibits cytochrome P-450), fever, chills
Flucytosine: Mechanism Inhibits DNA synthesis by converstion to 5-flurouracil.
Flucytosine: Clnical use Systemic fungal infections (candida, crypto) in combination with amphotericin
Flucytosine: toxicity Nausea, vomitin, diarrhea, bone marrow suppression
Caspofungin: mechanism Inhibits cell wall synthesis by inhibiting B-glucan
Caspofungin: use Invasive aspergillosis
Caspofungin: toxicity GI upset, flushing
Terbinafine: mechanism Inhibit fungal enzyme squalene epoxidase (decrease ergosterol synthesis)
Terbinafine: use dermatophytoses, onychomycosis
Griseofulvin: mechanism Interferes with microtubule function: disrupts mitosis;
Griseofulvin: Clinical use oral treatment of superficial infections; inhibits growth of dermatophytes (tinea ringworm)
Griseofulvin: toxicity Teratogenic, carcinogenic, confusion, headaches, increases P-450 and warfin metabolism, deposits in kertain-containing tissues
Treatment of sporothrix schenckii potassium iodide, itraconazole
Treatment of tinea versicolor Selenium sulfide (selsun), miconazole
Treatment of tinea peidis azoles
Amantidine: mechanism blocks M2 protein, acidifying virus and preventing uncoating and penetration of virus. Causes release of daopmine from intact nerve terminals.
Amantidine: clinical use Prophylaxis and treatment for influenza A; Parkinson's disease. "Amantidine blocks influenza A, and rubellA, and causes problems with the cerebellA"
Amantidine: Toxicity Ataxia, dizziness, slurred speech
Mechanism of resistance Mutated M2 protein. 90% of all influenza A strains are resistant to amantidine, so not used
Rimantidine is different than amantidine because it has fewer side CNS side effects and does not cross the BBB.
Oseltamivir and ____: Mechanism Inhibit influenza neuraminidase (decreases the release of progeny virus)
Oseltamivir: clinical use Influenza A and B
Ribavirin: mechanism Inhibits synthesis of guanine nulceotides by competively inhibiting IMP dehydrogenase
Ribavirin: clinical use RSV, chronic hepatitis C
Ribavirin: toxicity Hemolytic anemia, severe teratogen
Acyclovir: mechanism Guanisine analog; inhibits DNA polymerase by chain termination. Monophosphorylated by HSV/VZV thymidine kinase
Acyclovir: clinical use HSV, VZV, EBV. USed for HSV-induced mucocutaneous and genital lesions, encephalitis. Prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients.
For herpes zoster (shingles) use ____. Famciclovir
Acyclovir: mechanism of resistance thymidine kinase
Gancyclovir: mechanism 5' monophosphate formed by a CMV viral kinase, or HSV/VSV thymidine kinase. Preferentially inhibits viral DNA polymerase
Gancyclovir: clinical use CMV, especially for immunocompromised patients
Gancyclovir: Toxicity Leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal toxicity. More toxic to host enzymes than acyclovir
Gancyclovir: Mechanism of resistance: Mutated CMV DNA polymerase or lack of viral kinase
Foscarnet: Mechanism blocks viral DNA polymerase by binding to pyrophosphate binding site. Does not need to be activated by viral kinase.
Foscarnet: Clinical use CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients when ganciclovir fails; acyclovir-resistant HSV
Foscarnet: Toxicity Nephrotoxicity
Foscarnet: mechanism of resistance Mutated DNA polymerase
Protease inhibitors end in ___- "navir" Navir (never) TEASE a proTEASE
Protease inhibitors: mechanism of action Inhibit maturation of new virus by blocking protease in progeny virions
Protease inhibitors: Toxicity GI intolerance (nausea, diarrhea) hyperglycemia, lipodystrophy
Protease inhibitor that causes thrombocytopenia Indinaivr
Name the Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors Zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), zalcitabine (ddC), stavudine (d4T), lamivudine (3TC), abacavir.
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Never Ever, Deliver nucleosides (Nevirapine, Efavirenz, Delaviridine)
Non-nucleoside mechanism of action Preferentially inhibit reverse transcriptase of HIV; prevent incorporation of DNA copy of viral genome into host DNA
Toxicity of reverse transcriptase inhibitors bone marrow suppression (neutropenia, anemia), peripheral neuropathy, lactic acidosis (nucleosides), rash (non-nucleosides), megablastic anemia
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
HAART includes: 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (efavirenz) or a protase inhibitor (lopinavir-ritonavir)
When is HAART initiated? when CD4 count is < 500/high viral load
ZDV: clinical use First line therapy for HIV, preventation of maternal-fetal HIV transmission
Ritonavir:lopinavir: mechanism of action Protease inhibitor; inhibits HIV protease and conversion of gag-pol polyprotein to functional proteins
Enfuvirtide: mechanism of action bind viral gp 41; inhibit conformation change requried for fusion with CD4 cells (block entry)
Enfuvirtide: clinical use Drug resistant HIV infection
Enfuvirtide: Toxicity: Hypersensitivity reaction, SQ reactions, increased risk of bacterial pneumonia
Interferons: mechanism of action glycoproteins from human leukocytes that block various stages of viral RNA and DNA synthesis. Induce ribonuclease that degrades viral mRNA
Interferons alpha Chronic hepatitis B/C, Kaposi's,
IFN-Beta: use MS
IFN-gamma: use NADPH oxidase deficiency (chronic granulomatous disease)
Antibiotics to avoid during pregnancy SAFE Moms Take Really Good Care (Sulfonamides, Aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, erythromycin, metronidazole, tetracylines, ribavirin, griseofulvin, chloramphenicol)
Sulfonamides in pregnancy kernicterus
Aminoglycosides in pregnancy ototoxicity
Fluoroquinolones in pregnancy cartilage damage
Erythromycin in pregnancy acute cholestatic hepatitis in mom (clarithromycin -embryotoxic)
Metronidazole in pregnancy mutagenesis
Tetracyclines in pregnancy discolored teeth, inhibition of bone growth
antiviral that's teratogenic Ribavirin
antifungal that's teratogenic Griseofulvin
chloramphenicol in pregnancy "gray baby"
Antifungal that inhibits P450 ___, Antifungal that induces P450 ____. Inhibits: Azoles, Induces = Griseofulvin
didanosine (aka ___). Example of a ____ Didanosine = ddI (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
zalcitabine (aka ___) Example of a ____ zalcitabine = ddC (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
stavudine (aka ____). Example of a ____ Stavudine = d4T (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
lamivudine (aka ____). example of a ___ lamivudine = 3TC (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
abacavir (aka ___). example of a ____. nothing else ! (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
Prophylaxis for Mycobacterium avium Azithromycin
Treatment for Mycobacterium avium Azithromycin, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin
treatment for TB INH-SPIRE (streptomycin,Isoniazid, rifmapin, ethambutol)
treatmet for M. leprae Dapsone, rifampin, clofazimine
Prophylaxis for M. tuberculosis Isoniazid
___ causes neuromuscular blockade if given after surgery Aminoglycosides
Pneumonic for aminoglycosides Mean GNATS canNOT kill anaerobes (Gentamycin, neomycin, tobramycin, streptomycin), NOT (neurotoxicity, ototoxcity, teratogen)
___ that can cause ATN aminoglycosides
Created by: ddecampo