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bio 104 final

overuse of antibiotics: drug resisting bacteria (already have mutations)
gene expression making a protein and its function
genetic drift random event that changes allele frequency (Ex: massive natural disaster)
allopatric speciation different and geographically isolated
adaptive radiation end up with many species coming from one main species (Ex: finches)
interphase between cytokinesis and beginning of mitosis
codons 3 nucleotides in a genetic code
mitosis ends up with the exact number of chromosomes it started with
meiosis ends up with half the number of chromosomes it started with
caspasses enzyme that brings about apoptosis (need signals to trigger them)
transcriptional control the most critical level of eukaryotic genetic control
post translational control level of primary control in eukaryotic gene activity involves changes in the polypeptide chain before it becomes functional
post transcriptional control a form of gene regulation that occurs while RNA is still in the nucleus
transposons "jumping genes" (like the ALU insert) have the ability to move within and between chromosomes
transcription factors a change in a regulatory gene can turn genes on and off
germ line mutations damage in sex cells that is going to be passed on to the next generation
chromatin level of control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells is involved when genes are turned off for good
differentiated cells will never divide again. they become specialized and go on to do their function
gametes produced by females 1 egg
gametes produced by males 4 sperm= more variety
homologous chromosomes same length and centromere in the same location (alleles are what is different)
binary fission differs from mitosis because no nucleus and no spindle
DNA repair enzyme complexes look for mistakes and begin to repair DNA
the semi-conservative nature of DNA replication you split apart the old and you add a new half to each
exons section of the pre-mrna contains the protein coding regions
incomplete dominance gene dosage (Ex: pink flower)
mitosis growth, repair, and reproduction for asexually reproducing organisms
overal function of meiosis makes gametes
metaphase 1 of meiosis or meiosis 1 synapse homologous chromosomes arranged along the equator
transitional control the level of genetic control that involves the life span of the mRNA molecule and the ability of the mRNA to bind to ribosomes
post transcriptional the level of genetic control that involves the processing of early rna transcripts to mrna and the rate at which mrna leaves the nucleus
post translational level of primary control in eukaryotic gene activity involves changes in the polypeptide chain before it becomes functional
telomerase lengthens the telomere
poly A tail stop it from degrading and helps it exit the nucleus
Barr body (only female) X chromosome gets turned off and is very tightly coiled
apoptosis pre-programmed cell death
lethal genes deadly, inbreeding increases this, and they are a recessive genes. A heterozygote can have it and not die
analogous structures same use/function but different look (Ex: butterfly and bat wing)
Created by: han.banan14



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