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Forensics science ex

forensics semester exam study guide

QuestionAnswer
Define forensic science. The science of investigation.
What are 4 different specialists? (hint: bones, insects, autopsy, and teeth) Anthropology- bones, Odontology- teeth, Pathology- autopsy, and Entomology- insects.
Which do you think is more reliable, a testimonial evidence or physical evidence? Physical evidence.
Describe what happens at the crime scene from the 911 call to turning the evidence over to the lab. Including the responding officer (his duties), the CSI team (their duties) and the chain of custody. The responding officers have to make sure the victim is breathing first. Then if the victim is not breathing do CPR.
Describe the difference between a rough sketch and final sketch. Rough sketch- The drawn outline of the scene and the location of the objects. Final sketch- When everything was put in order of the crime scene.
Witness statement Testimonial
Blood Physical
Ransom note Physical
Hair Physical
Shoe print Physical
AB+ blood Class
Worn tire tread Class
New tire tread Class
Red t-shirt Class
Hair with root Individual
Drugs Chemical
Shoe print Impression
Blood Biological
Gun Ballistics
Glass Chemical
Ransom note Document
What are 3 ways a crime scene is documented by the CSI team? Establish the scene and identify how the person was killed. Communicate and coordinate Document and process the scene.
What are 4 types of crime scene searches? Zone, spiral, strip, and grid.
Who created the first systematic classification of identification? Alphonse Bertillion
What is the significance of the Will West case? The fingerprints of the two were completely different from each other. This showed that fingerprints could be used to accurately identify a criminal.
What are the three basic principles of fingerprinting? A fingerprint is an individual characteristic. A fingerprint will remain unchanged during an individual's life time. Fingerprints have general ridge patterns that permit them to be systematically classified.
What are the three main patterns of prints? Loop, whorl, and arch.
Plain whorl 2 deltas.
Central pocket whorl The second delta is at the base of the whorl designed in the center of the loop.
Double loop whorl 2 separate loops are present, which sometimes surround each other.
Plain arch No deltas.
Tented arch Ridges in the center that thrust upward to give an appearance similar to a tent.
Loop 65%, enter 1 side, re-curve, and goes back out same side. Has 1 delta (triangle) and the loop center is called the core.
How do you tell the difference between a plain arch and a tented arch? Plain arch doesn't look like a tent, it just has lines going straight across. Tented arch looks like a mountain.
What structure makes up DNA? What are the 3 parts that make up that structure? Nucleotide. Adenine, thymine, and cytosine.
What 2 parts make up the backbone of DNA? How is the backbone of DNA arranged? Sugar and phosphate. Hydrogen bonds.
In which direction are the nitrogenous bases facing in the DNA? What bond holds the bases together (towards the middle or towards the outside)? It looks like a ladder. Hydrogen bonds.
What is gel electrophoresis? Method used to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins according to molecular size.
Why do scientists use gel electrophoresis? To compare DNA samples from different sources.
Why are the larger pieces of DNA closer to the wells? Why are the smaller pieces of DNA further from the wells? Heavier fragments on top, and smallest DNA near the bottom of the gel.
What is a karyotype? Chromosomes of a cell, usually displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size.
How many chromosomes does a normal karyotype have? How many of those are autosomes? How many are sex chromosomes? Humans- each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46. 22 - autosomes. Sex chromosomes there is a 23rd pair.
What is the sex chromosome make up of a male? Female? Male- XY Female- XX
In what ways do doctors use karyotypes? Determine the sex of an individual.
What does it mean if a karyotype has a trisomy 21? What disorder is that? One will have 24 chromosomes and the other will have 22 chromosomes. Down syndrome.
Which blood type is the universal donor? Why? Group O- can donate red blood cells to anybody.
Which blood type is the universal recipient? Why? AB- receive blood transfusion from a person with any blood type, not just their own blood type.
What can blood spatter analysis tell us about a crime? Initially sustain an injury.
What is the difference between spatter and transfer? Spatter- when blood is acted upon by force and travels through the air before landing on a target surface. Transfer- occurs when a blood source comes in a direct contact with the target surface area.
What do the blood drops look like when they are dropped on a smooth surface? Rough surface? Smooth surface- will have little or no distortion around the edge. Regular circular edges. Rough surface- Irregular shape stain with rough or jagged edges. Will have little or no distortion around the edge.
What are some ways that scientists can detect blood at a crime scene? By smudges, smears, splatters, and sprays all point to different event.
What is the difference between the parent drop and the satellite drops? Satellite drops and spikes? Parent drop- the droplet from which a satellite spatter originates. Satellite drops- small drops of blood that breaks of from the parent spatter when a blood droplet hits the surface. Spikes- Pointed edge of a stain that radiates out from spatter.
List the formula for determining the angle of impact. Sin = width/length
What happens to the size of the blood drop as it is dropped from a low height to a high height? The size changes.
Describe the difference between low, medium, and high velocity spatter. Low- Large, circular, falls at the speed of force of formal gravity. Medium- Produce more energy or force than gravity. Causes the blood to break into smaller size spatters. High- Takes a "mist like" appearance.
The tail of a blood drop points to where? Points to the travel direction.
Created by: Katwill678