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Elementary Chemistry The two main factors that determine whether or not matter can undergo change are the properties of matter and the availability of energy
Matter Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space
Composition of matter All matter, both living and nonliving, is composed of elements, compounds, and mixtures
Elements ~ A substance that cannot be changed into simpler substances by ordinary means is called an element ~ Living things are composed mainly of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Compounds ~ A combination of chemical elements in definite proportions by masses called a compound ~ A chemical formula shows the kind of elements in a compound and the proportions of each element by mass
Mixtures ~ The components of a mixture of are not fixed or chemically combined. ~ Thus, the mixture has no chemical formula
Solution A mixture in which one substance dissolves in another is called a solution
Solute The substance that dissolves is called a solute
Solvent The substance in which the solute dissolves is called a solvent
Change in matter Both the phase and the composition of matter may change under different conditions
Change in phase ~ At a given temperature and pressure, all matter exist in one of the three phases -- solid, liquid, or gas ~ When the temperature or pressure changes, matter may undergo a change in phase
Physical change When matter changes, a physical change takes place, in which matter retains it's original composition
Change in composition When matter undergoes a change in composition, a chemical change takes place
Chemical change ~ A chemical change occurs when complex substances are broken down into simpler substances or vice versa ~ As a result of chemical change, new substances, called products are formed
Changes in property When matter undergoes change its properties(characteristics) also change
Physical properties All matter possesses physical properties such as phase, color, odor, and solubility
Chemical properties Matter possesses chemical properties such as the ability to burn or to support burning
Energy Energy is the ability to work
Potential energy Potential energy is energy matter possesses, or stores, because of position or condition
Kinetic energy Kinetic energy is the energy of motion
Reactants Reactants are the reacting substances in a chemical reaction
Activation energy Chemical reactions usually require energy to occur; this energy is called activation energy, which causes molecules of the reactants to move faster, thus increasing the chance of molecular collision
Calorie A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a gram of water one degree Celsius
Elements and Atoms Smallest particle of a particular element that can't combine with other elements is called an atom
Atomic nucleus Each nucleus of each kind of atom contains protons and neutrons
Protons Each proton has a positive electrical charge
Neutrons A neutron has no electrical charge
Electrons Electrons are negatively charged particles located outside of the nucleus
Shells/ Energy levels Electrons are arranged in patterns, called shells, or energy levels, are identified by certain letters
K Shell The K shell is the closest shell to the nucleus and can hold a maximum of two electrons
L Shell The L shell is the second closest shell to the nucleus and can hold a maximum of eight electrons
M Shell The M shell is the third closest shell to the nucleus and can hold a maximum of 18 electrons
Chemical activity The chemical activity of elements depends upon (a) the number of arrangement of electrons and their atoms, and (b) the energy levels the electrons reach as a result of gaining or losing energy
Atomic mass ~ The combined mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus is called the atomic mass ~ Atomic mass is designated by placing the combined number of protons and neutrons to the upper left of the chemical symbol of an element
Atomic number The number of protons, is designated by placing the appropriate number to the lower left of the element's symbol
Isotopes An atom of an element that does not have the same mass of the same element is called an isotope
Radioactive isotopes ~ Many isotopes are radioactive ~ They emit radiations such as alpha rays(helium nuclei), beta rays(high-speed electrons), and gamma rays(which are similar to x-rays)
Helpful radioactive isotopes Radioactive isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, iodine, and cobalt are among many radioactive isotopes used in research and medicine
Types of compounds All compounds are classified as either inorganic or organic
Inorganic compounds An inorganic compound does not contain the elements carbon
Organic compounds An organic compound always contains carbon in the complex combinations with hydrogen, oxygen, and other elements
Chemical bonds ~ The attractive force that binds atoms in a compound is called a chemical bonds ~ The two general types of chemical bond are ionic and covalent
Ionic bonds Ions that attracts each other and unite, forming an electrostatic bond
Covalent bonds A bond formed when atoms share electrons
Molecule Two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds
Valence Electrons The outer most energy level
Octet An atom that has eight electrons
Chemical reaction When a chemical reaction occurs, new bonds are formed and old bonds are broken
Exothermic reaction Chemical reactions
Acids ~ A water solution of a substance that ionizes into positively charged hydrogen ions ~ taste sour and change the color of blue litmus(an indicator) to red
Bases ~ A water solution of a substance that ionizes into negatively charged hydroxide ions ~ taste bitter and feel slippery, and you change the color of red litmus to blue
Neutralization ~ The reaction between an acid and a base that yields a salt and water ~ The equations show that a salt is a compound with a positive ion and a negative ion
Mineral salts Inorganic salts that's are found independently in rocks and minerals
pH scale A pH scale is used to indicate the ° of acidity(Concentration of hydrogen ions) or the degree of alkalinity (concentration of hydroxide ions) of a particular solution
Dehydration synthesis reaction Small molecules combined to form larger and more complex molecules in a dehydration synthesis reaction
Hydrolysis Large complex molecules are broken down to smaller ones with the aid of hydrolysis molecules
Replacement reaction One or more elements and a compound replace one or more elements in another compound during a replacement reaction
Factors affecting the rate of chemical reactions The rate of chemical reaction depends upon the nature and concentrations of the reactants, sizes of reacting particles, temperature, and the presence of catalysts
Nature of reactants Different substances react at different rates
Concentration of reactants Chemical reaction occurs because of delusions between the reactant molecules thus, increasing the quality, or concentration, of reactants and a given reaction increases the rate of reaction
Size of reactant particles The smallest sizes of reacting particles the more rapid the reaction is
Temperature And in temperature usually increases the rate of the reaction...that is because additionally causes the reactants molecules to move faster...rapid motion increases a number of collisions between the reacting molecules
Catalysts A substance that speeds up the rate of reaction without being changed itself is called a catalyst
Enzymes Organic catalyst found in living things
Carbohydrates Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The ratio of H atoms to O atoms in carbohydrates is 2:1
Single sugars (monosaccharides) Cannot be broken down into a simpler sugar
Isomers Compounds that have the same molecular formula (composition) but different structural formulas
Glucose (dextrose or grape sugar) A very important single sugar in organisms because it is easily used in exothermic reactions
Pentose Five-carbon sugars; examples include deoxyribose and ribose
Double sugars (disaccharides) Consists of two single sugars joined by dehydration synthesis
Common double sugars Include sucrose(table sugar), maltose(found in many seeds), and lactose(found in milk)
Multiple sugars (polysaccharides) A complex molecule formed by joining of hundreds of glucose molecules.
Examples of multiple sugars Starch, glycogen, and cellulose
Glycogen and Cellulose A storage form of glucose found in the liver, and cellulose makes up the cells of plant cells
Proteins Enormous molecules composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur
Amino Acids An organic acid containing the amino group(NH2) and the carboxyl, or acid, group (COOH)
Peptide bond Formed between amino acids after water comes
Created by: UltimateAbdul



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