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Photosynthesis. The process by which plants are able to make their own food by changing light energy into chemical energy of organic molecules.
Plants are considered ____________ or ______________ because they make their own food. Autotrophs and producers.
Photosynthesis provides ____________ to the environment. Oxygen.
True or False: All of the food and fuel available to organisms directly or indirectly comes from photosynthesis. True.
Organelle where photosynthesis takes place. Chloroplast.
Green pigment in chloroplast, specifically the grana. Chlorophyll.
Two parts of the chloroplasts. Grana (stacked disks, light reaction) and stroma (protein containing liquid, dark reaction).
What do plants need in order to go through photosynthesis? Carbon dioxide, water, enzymes, sunlight, chlorophyll.
Plant food they produce themselves through photosynthesis. Glucose.
Products of photosynthesis. Glucose, water, and oxygen.
Word equation of photosynthesis. light, chlorophyll, enzymes Carbon dioxide + water ______________> sugar + oxygen + water
What are the reactants of photosynthesis? Carbon dioxide and water.
What is the waste gas of photosynthesis? Oxygen.
Chemical equation for photosynthesis. 6CO2 + 12H2O -----------> C6H12O6 + 6H20 _ 6O2
Factors that affect photosynthesis. Temperature (35 C), light intensity (1/3 of summer sun), carbon dioxide level (direct) , concentration of minerals (helps with chlorophyll) , water (direct).
What part of the chloroplast is used for light reactions? Granum.
What part of the chloroplast is used for dark reactions? Stroma.
Light reactions. (AKA light dependent reaction) A series of reactions requiring light in which water is split and ATP and NADPH2 are produced.
What are the four main parts of light reactions? Photolysis, transfer of hydrogen, formation of ATP, occurs in grana.
Dark reaction. (AKA light independent or Calvin cycle) A series of reactions in photosynthesis in which carbon fixation occurs and which do not require sunlight
Two main parts of dark reaction. Carbon fixation, occurs in stroma.
Photolysis. Splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen.
Carbon fixation. Carbon dioxide is converted into a carbohydrate, glucose.
Particle of light. Photon.
Substance that absorbs light. Pigment.
The different colors or wavelengths of light absorbed by each pigment in photosynthesis. Absorption spectrum.
What is directly involved in converting light energy to chemical energy? Chlorophyll A.
Photosynthetic membranes in the chloroplast that are arranged in the shape of flattened sacs. Thylakoids.
Cuticles. The outermost waxy layer of both the upper and lower leaf surfaces that protects the leaf against excess water loss, mechanical injury, and attack by fungi, are clear and contain no pigment.
Epidermis. Outer layer of cells, which also protect the inner tissues.
Stomates. An opening in the epidermis of leaves that allows for the exchange of respiratory gases, such as oxygen and water vapor, between the internal tissues of a plant and the atmosphere.
Guard cells. A specialized epidermal cell that regulates opening and closing of the stomates, helps maintain homeostasis, regulates gas exchange.
Mesophyll. Layer of photosynthetic tissue between the upper and lower layers of epidermis, includes the palisade layer and the spongy layer.
Palisade layer. Just below the upper epidermis that consists of long cells with many chloroplasts, most photosynthesis occurs here.
Spongy layer. Located below the palisade layer, contains many interconnected air spaces surrounded by moist cell structures, helps with circulation of gases.
Vascular bundle/Veins. Contains conducting tissue, which brings water and dissolved materials to the sites of photosynthesis and carry synthesized nutrients away to other organs of the plant.
Xylem. Part of the veins, transports water and minerals up the plant.
Phloem. Part of the veins, transports food down the plant.
Where can chloroplasts be found inside the leaf? In the guard cells, in the palisade layer, and the spongy layer.
Why is photosynthesis significant? It produces glucose for the plant, which can later be broken down or synthesized.
Where does the energy from photosynthesis end up? In glucose molecules, stored as chemical energy.
Created by: emarciante9