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Biology

Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
Which of the following is NOT listed as a property of life in your text? A. Order B. Sensitivity to Stimuli C. Movement D. Growth C. Movement
The smallest unit of biological structure that meets the functional requirements of "living" is the ______________ Cell
Which of the following sequences represents the hierarchy of biological organization from the least complex to the most complex? C. Organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
Science is primarily concerned with understanding how the natural world works TRUE
Natural selection is a mechanism that drives evolutionary change. The organisms that exhibit a "fit" to their envioronment are the _______________________________. A. ones that have the ability to survive and reproduce in that environment
How many electrons does carbon have in its outer shell? 4
When two atoms form a chemical bond and share electrons equally between them, this is known as a ____________________ Non-polar covalent bond
List chemical bonds in order from weakest to strongest Hydrogen bond, ionic bond, covalent bond
Which of the following pH values indicates the LOWEST concentration of hydrogen ions? 1, 4, 8, 11 pH=11
In lab, how did NaHCO3 (baking soda) act as a buffer when hydrochloric acid was added to the buffered solution? The baking soda took up the excess hydrogen ions
Bicarbonate ions facilitate the homeostasis of pH in your blood by bonding with hydrogen ions to become carbonic acid TRUE
Water has very unique properties that result from the fact that it is a ______________ molecule polar
The four major groups of organic compounds are Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins & nucleic acids
The sequence of amino acids in a protein is considered the protein's _________________ structure. Primary
Enzymes are catalysts in biochemical reactions. Enzymes can function to ______________________________. Break molecular bonds, rearrange molecular bonds, form new molecular bonds. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
How many carbon atoms are in one glucose molecule? 6
What is Starch's function? Plant sugar storage
What purpose to enzymes have? they are catalysts in biochemical reactions
What does DNA do? It carries information for the functioning for the cell
What do Phospholipids do? they form the bilayer of the cell's membranes
Polymer: polysaccharide; Monomer:____________________ monosaccharide
Polymer: Protein; Monomer:______________________ Amino Acid
Polymer: Nucleic Acid; Monomer: ____________________ Nucleotide
R-OH Hydroxyl
O= R-C-OH Carboxyl
O= R-O-P-OH -OH Phosphate
A proposed explanation for a phenomenon or question that can be tested and is falsifiable Hypothesis
A propsed explanation for a phenomenon or question that HAS BEEN tested & proven widely and is formed through numerous agreeing experiments Scientific Theory
Fatty acid chains that have a bend which prevents numerous fatty acids from attaching to each other and creates oil (unlike saturated fats which are solid and lack this bend) Unsaturated Fatty Acid
A substance that absorbs stray hydrogen ions, which maintains a moderate pH despite the addition of acidic substances (until it reaches its limit) buffer
the mechanism that allows an organism to maintain its bodily functions, such as regulating temperature homeostasis
What number represents the mass number? the sum of protons & neutrons listed under the name
Where is the atomic number & what does it represent? Top left; # of protons
How does detergent work? Detergent molecules are solutes. They allow water & oil to move by removing surface tension. Oil is hydrophobic and water is hydrophilic, and the detergent is able to move between these two substances.
What is the function of MITOSIS? To allow multicellular organisms to grow and replace damaged cells
Which stage of the cell cycle is NOT part of interphase? Mitosis
What is necessary for a cell to pass the G2 checkpoint? accurate and complete DNA replication
What happens during Interphase? The cell grows, makes proteins, organelles are duplicated, DNA is replicated
How do daughter cells at the end of MITOSIS and cytokinesis compare with the parent cells in G1 of interphase? The daughters have the SAME amount of DNA & SAME # of chromosomes
A diploid cell has _____________________ the number of chromosoes as a haploid cell. Twice!
An organism's traits are determined by the specific combination of inherited _______________________ Genes
What is a likely evolultionary advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction? Sexual reproduction yields greater variety in offspring
MEIOSIS produces _________________ cells 4 unique haploid
At what stage of meiosis are homologous pairs of chromosomes separated from each other? Anaphase I
At which stage of meiosis are sister chromatids separated from each other? Anaphase II
If a muscle cell of a typical organism has 32 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will be in a gamete of that same organism? 16
What is the reason for doing a test cross? to identify heterozygous individuals with a dominant phenotype
When a population has a gene with three alleles circulating, how many possible genotypes are there? SIX
What introduces variation into offspring during meiosis? crossing over & independent assortment. NOT mutation; that doesn't happen during MEIOSIS
What are the types of gametes that can be produced by an individual with the genotype AaBb? AB, Ab, aB, ab
What did Lively (1992) conclude from his study of the freshwater snail and the parasitic worm? The changing environment caused by the parasitic worms selected in favor of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction in snails
_________________ are changes to the nucleotides in a segment of DNA that codes for a protein gene mutations
if a disease is caused by a dominant allele, it means that a person with the disease:________________________ Could either be homozygous or heterozygouls for the allele
Mendel observed evidence of independent assortment in his peas. What is actually occurring in the pea plant that CAUSES the independent assortment Mendel observed? homologous chromosomes randomly align in the middle of the cell during metaphase I
For a gene that is expressed in a dominant and recessive pattern, homozygous dominant (YY) and heterozygous (Yy) organisms will look identical. TRUE
Energy is stored long-term in the bonds of __________________ and used short-term to perform work from a(n)_________________molecule glucose; ATP
What is the correct chemical equation for cellular respiration? C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O
High energy electron carriers "drop off" electrons at which stage of cellular respiration? Electron transport chain
During the electron transport chain in cellular respiration, ATP is produced when __________________________ hydrogen ions move down the concentration gradient
What are the products of alcohol fermentation by yeast? ethanol, CO2, and NAD+
Plants produce oxygen when they photosynthesize. Where does the oxygen come from? splitting water molecules
Which color of light does chlorophyll a (the chlorophyll in most plants) absorb? red & BLUE!
if a species of gopher has 21% THYMINE bases found in its DN, what percent of its bases will by CYTOSINE? 29%
What is the function of nucleic acids? they carry info
DNA replicates by which of the following models? semiconservative
what are the parts of a DNA nucleotide? a deoxyribose (5-carbon sugar), phosphate group & nitrogenous base
the DNA molecule is composed of 2 single strands of nucleotide chains twisted around each other into a double helix. These chains are held together with what type of bond?
Created by: mirdesilva