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BIO Chapter 15

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

TermDefinition
Who is Thomas Hunt Morgan? geneticist that experimented with the color of fruit fly eyes
Why did Morgan study fruit flies? easy to control, produce a lot of offspring
What major discover about genetics did Morgan make? sex-linked genetic traits
How many pairs of autosomes in a human? 22
How many sex chromosomes? 1 pair
Sex linked recessive disorders- disorders what are linked to the X chromosome and occur in men much more frequently than in women
Mary Lyon’s dosage compensation hypothesis- Barr bodies
Barr bodies- an inactivated chromosome to deal with an “extra” one
Nondisjunction- results in alterations in chromosome number, when chromosomes fail to split correctly in mitosis or meiosis
Aneuploidy- a change in chromosome number that effects on or several chromosomes in a cell
Polyploidy- change in chromosome number that effects a whole set of chromosomes
Trisomy- extra chromosome in women that results in a major increase in miscarriage likelihood
Monosomy- missing a chromosome
Trisomy 21- down syndrome
Trisomy 18- Edwards syndrome
Trisomy 13- Patau syndrome
47 XXX- healthy female with two barr bodies
45 X- infertile female, turner syndrome
47 XYY- taller than average male, healthy, no conception issues
47 XXY0 Klinefelter syndrome in males, conception issues
4 types of alterations in chromosome structure- deletions, duplications, translocation, inversion
Deletion- removes a chromosomal segment, sever symptoms
Duplications- repeat a segment of a chromosome, symptoms can include speech and language delays, social anxiety, diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, seizures
Inversion- reverses a segment within a chromosome, no huge effects normally
Translocation- moves a segment from one chromosomes to a non-homologous chromosome
Genomic imprinting- gene expression occurs from only one allele
Mechanism of genomic imprinting- epigenetic process that can involve DNA methylation to turn off the expression of an allele
Created by: mr_spangler