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BIO Chapter 13


Gametes- reproductive cells
Haploid- single set of chromosomes in gamete cells produced by ovaries and testies
Diploid cell- cell formed by egg and sperm coming together, single cell
Zygote- fertilized egg
Somatic cells- diploid, 46 chromosomes, 23 from each parent
Autosomes- a chromosome not directly involved in determining sex
Sex chromosomes- determines sex of a child
Homologous chromosome- two chromosomes of pair with the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern
Karyotype- a pair of homologous replicated chromosomes
Meiosis 1- separates homologous chromosomes
Prophase 1- spindle forms, chromosomes condense, nuclear envelope breaks down
Metaphase 1- pairs of chromosome arrange in a line
Anaphase 1- homologous chromosomes separate and head towards poles
Telophase 1 and cytokinesis- two haploid cells form, each chromosome still has two sister chromatids
Meiosis 2- sister chromatids separate
Prophase 2- spindle forms, chromosomes begin to drift toward metaphase plate
Metaphase 2- chromosomes position in a line, crossing over causes these chromosomes to be genetically different
Anaphase 2- sister chromatids split, moving as individual chromosomes towards poles
Telophase 2 and cytokinesis- nuclei form, chromosomes condense, four genetically different daughter cells form
Crossing over- occurs in metaphase 2, causes chromosomes to be genetically different
Random fertilization- a way of genetic variation by the sperm randomly selecting egg cells
Independent assortment- random grouping together of chromosomes at metaphase 1 that causes genetic variance
Created by: mr_spangler