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BIO Chapter 10


Where does the Calvin cycle take place? in the stroma
Where does photosynthesis take place? In the chloroplast
Photosynthesis- The conversion of light energy into chemical energy, food, or sugars
Formula for photosynthesis- light energy + 6 CO2 + 12H2O Right Arrow C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is needed for photosynthesis to occur? carbon dioxide, water, and light energy
What does carbon get reduced to? Sugar
What does water get oxidized to? oxygen
What is produced by photosynthesis- glucose, water, and oxygen
What are major features of photosynthesis? Light reaction and the Calvin Cycle?
Phototroph- ability to use light as energy
Chemotroph- require chemical energy or food
Autotroph- self feed, take carbon and form it into an orgain molecules
Heterotroph- human
Chemoheterotroph- get energy from another source
Do fungi photosynthesize? no
First stage of photosynthesis- light reactions
Light reactions- a series of redox reactions that convert light energy into ATP and NADPH
Where is light absorbed into? photosystem one and two
What is water used for in photosystem 2? – water is split and its electrons are donated to electron transport chain
What is the function of the CTY complex? pumps protons from the stroma into the lumen of the thylakoid, creating a proton motive force
Reaction center- where electrons get pumped into in each photosystem
Primary electron acceptor- where electrons get pumped out of in each photosystem
Photophosphorylation and chemiosmosis- proton motive force is pumped through ATP synthase and produces ATP to be used in Calvin cycle
NADP+ reductase- protein that reduces NADP+ into NADPH
How many electrons are moved down the electron transport chain? 2 electrons
What gets put into the Calvin cycle- 3 carbon, one at a time
Phase one of Calvin cycle- carbon fixation, uses 6 ATP and 6 NADH
Phase two of Calvin cycle- reduction, the output is one sugar molecule (G3P)
How many G3P molecules are used in the rest of the cycle?- 5 G3P
How many ATP are used in the last steps of the Calvin cycle? 3 ATP
Rubisco- catalyzes the fixing of phosphate at first step of Calvin cycle
Cyclic electron flow- electrons flow in a circle through photosystem one and surrounding proteins creating extra ATP
Pigment molecules- embedded in thylakoid membrane, can absorb visible wavelengths of light, important to light reactions
Third phase of Calvin cycle- regeneration phase
Photorespiration- when the rubisco molecule grabs oxygen instead of CO2, and the plant can't produce sugar.
Pep carboxylase- fixes carbon dioxide in special way. Can never make a mistake, only grabs carbon. Special enzyme
C4 plants- plants that utilize pep carboxylase (i.e. corn)
CAM plants- plants that maximize photosynthesis and eliminate photorespiration by fixing carbon at night and running the Calvin Cycle during the day.
Created by: mr_spangler