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Genetics

QuestionAnswer
Traits physical characteristics like eye or hair color
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Genetics Scientific study of Heredity
homozygous organism that has the same 2 alleles for a trait; always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parents (purebred) (GG or gg)
Gene factors that control traits (a portion of DNA)
Allele Different forms of a gene (ex. one for short and for tall)
Dominate allele one who's trait always shows up in an organism when the allele is present ( represent with upper case letter)
Recessive allele One whose trait is masked or covered up when the dominate allele is present(lower case)
heterozygous An organism that has 2 different alleles for trait ; hybrid(Gg)
probability Chance that trait will show
Punnett Square Chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Phenotype physical appearance or visible trait that you can see in the person
Genotype organism's genetic makeup or allele combination, this you can't see( Gg)
Gregor Mendel Father of genetics
DNA -deoxyribonucleic acid- -a chemical molecule that carries all of the cell’s instructions. Code for life.
Double helix Shape of DNA -looks like a twisted ladder
incomplete dominance Neither trait is completely dominant, blending of traits.
co dominance both traits are seen in offspring ,example white flower x red flower produces a red and white spotted flower.
co dominance Both of the traits are dominant
incomplete dominance Blending of traits; red flower crossed with white flower produces pink flowers.
Phenotype physical appearance or visible trait that you can see expressed in the offspring(tall or short)
Genotype organism's genetic makeup or allele combination, this you can't see( TT ot Tt or tt)
Selective breeding a process humans use to breed or reinforce desired traits into a particular organism.
Breeding 2 poodles to get another poodle selective breeding
breeding to a corn plant with large kernels and one with sweet kernels to get a large, sweet kerneled plant selective breeding
genetic engineering the manipulation(changing) of an organism’s genes.
genome the comlpete set of genes(DNA) in an organism
genetically modified organisms (GMO) using technology to add, or modify genes directly in the genome of living things.
GMO example---Adding a gene for disease resistance from one plant in to the DNA of a plant that is not resistant to get a disease resistant form.
GMO example-- adding the gene for human milk into the DNA of a cow so that the cow makes human milk.
Genetic engineering example.. inserting the gene that makes human insulin into a bacteria cell so that the bacteria make human insulin for diabetics
Biomedical research techniques to advance medical science and improve human lives.
biomedical research example-study the human genome to try to find cures for genetic deseases.
Mutation any change in the genes(DNA) of an organism.
body cell mutations can cause cancer and contributes to aging
sex cell mutations can result in genetic disorders
body cell mutations only affect the oragnism with the mutation
sex cell mutations affect the offspring of the organism with the mutation
sex chromosomes the 23rd pair of chromosomes
sex chromosomes XX is female
sex chromosomes XY is male
polygenic traits Traits controlled by 2 or more genes
multiple alleles There are 3 or more alleles (forms) of the trait or gene.
Created by: science7th
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