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Food Science

Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
Sensory (subjective) tests Evaluations of food based on sensory characteristics and personal preferences as perceive by the five senses.
Objective tests Evaluations of food quality that rely on numbers generated by laboratory instruments that are used to quantify the physical and chemical differences among foods.
Which senses are used in assessing food quality? Quality, appearance, flavor, taste, aroma, texture, mouthfeel
3 teaspoons 1 Tablespoon
16 Tablespoons 1 cup
1 cup 8 fluid ounces
2 cups 1 pint
4 cups 1 quart
16 ounces 1 pound
Proper technique measuring flour Sift before lightly spooned into factional measuring cup and leveled with a spatula. The cup should never be tapped or shaken down.
Proper technique measuring sugar Granulated is usually poured into factional measuring cups and leveled with a spatula. Brown is best measured by pressing firmly into a factional measuring cup and leveling it. Confectioners' must be sifted before measuring then measured like granulated
Proper technique for fats Liquid are measured in glass measuring cups. Solid should be removed from fridge and allowed to become plastic. Then use a fractional measuring cup, need to be pressed down. May also be used using water displacement method.
What does 1 ounce mean? What does 1 fluid ounce mean? Fluid ounce only measures volume, whereas an ounce measures weight. They are only equal when measuring water.
Rare beef 140°F
Medium beef 160°F
Well done 170°F
What is the purpose of tenderizers? To create a piece of meat easier to chew, expand flavors
Two milk proteins Casein and whey
Which milk protein is affected by heat? Whey is affected little by acid, but greatly affected by the addition of heat.
Which milk protein is affected by acid? Casein is affected little by heat, but is greatly by the addition of acid.
What is processed cheese? Produced by combining different varieties of natural cheese and mixing them with other ingredients (emulsifiers).
Which cheese melts easier? Process cheeses, which contain added water and emulsifiers, can be heated with out fat separating, blend more smoothly, and melt more easily than do unprocessed cheeses.
What is chymosin and what does it do to milk? An enzyme sold commercially as rennet that causes milk to clot, forming a curd.
Different ways to prepare eggs Fried, scrambled, poached, coddled, hard boiled, soft boiled, quiche, souffle
Functions of eggs in food preparation They have the ability to flavor, color, emulsify or thicken, bind, foam, interfere, color, coat, leven, clarify, and prevent crystallization.
How and why do egg whites create stable foam? Vigorous beating of egg whites breaks the links between protein molecules causing the protein molecule to unwind. A foam structure is created when the unfolded proteins rearrange to construct films around the air cells.
What is the term blanching? Why is the process used? It is to dip food briefly in boiling water to inactivate enzymes to remove skins from fruits, nuts, and vegetables. It enhances color (green)
Carotenoids Yellow-orange; carrots, oranges, peaches, pineapples, pink grapefruit, tomatoes, watermelon, winter squashes
Chlorophyll Green; broccoli, green cabbage, kale, lettuce, spinach
Anthocyanin Red-purple; eggplant, radish, red cabbage, red potato
Anthoxanthin Cream-white; cauliflower, onions, rice, turnips, white potato
Betalains Purple-red, yellow; beets
What is gluten and what is its purpose? The protein portion of wheat flour with the elastic characteristics necessary for the structure of most baked products.
What ingredients and what preparation techniques are required for gluten to perform? When flour is mixed with water, an elastic network forms as two types of proteins in flour, gliadin and gluten, combine to yield the protein complex gluten. Kneading alternately compressed and stretches the dough to increase gluten development
Amylose Made up primarily linear molecules-higher amounts of amylose tend to gel
Amylopectin Made up of molecules that are highly branched and do not tend to gel
Does sugar modify a starch past? If so, how? Factors contributing to the delayed gelatinization caused by sugars include reduced granular swelling and starch sugar and starch water interactions. Adding too much sugar inhibits complete gelatinization and results in a a which runny paste.
What is gelatinization? What temperature and ingredients enhance or hinder it? The increase in volume, viscosity, and translucency of starches when they are heated in a liquid. It is influence by several factors, including amount of water, the temperature, heating time, stirring, and presence of acid, sugar, and/or fat.
What is dextrinization? The breakdown of starch molecules to smaller, sweeter tasting dextrin molecules in the presence of dry heat.
Physical leaveners Air and steam
Biological leaveners Yeast and bacteria
Chemical leaveners Baking powder and baking soda
Baking powder Chemical leavened consisting of a mixture of baking soda, acids, and inert filler such as cornstarch.
Baking soda White chemical leavening powder consisting of sodium bicarbonate. In order to do its job, it must have an acidic ingredient added to the flour mixture.
What causes tunnels in quick breads and muffins? Caused by excess gluten development in the dough during mixing.
What ingredients are required for yeast breads? Flour, liquid, sugar, salt, and yeast; fat and/or eggs are optional
What is the optimal temperature for yeast breads to rise? Location is both humid and slightly warmer than room temperature (approximately 85°F).
Why is kneading the dough required for yeast breads? It develops the dough's gluten to its maximum potential.
Oil-in-water Oil droplets are dispersed throughout the water; milk, cream, egg yolks
Water-in-oil Water droplets are supersede throughout the oil; mayonnaise, salad dressings, cheese sauces, gravies, puddings, cream soups
How do eggs work in emulsions? The yolks contain lipoproteins with lecithin and protein components. These lipoproteins migrate to the interface and form a strong, stable interfacial film that prevents coalescence.
Plasticity The ability of a fat to be shaped or molded.
Solubility The ability of one substance to blend uniformly with another substance.
Viscosity The Resistance of a fluid to flowing freely, caused by the friction of its molecules against a surface.
What are the basic ingredients in a shortened and unsharpened cake? They both contain flour, sugar, fats, eggs, milk, leavening agent
What are the basic ingredients in a foam cakes? What leavens a foam cake? Cake prepared without or with a very small amount of fat from egg yolks; leavened with steam and air from beaten egg yolk
What are the terms desirable qualities in pastry? Flaky, tender, crisp, and lightly browned.
What specific ingredients produce the most desirable pastry? Flour, fat, liquid and salt. Eggs and sugar and optional which add flavor and browning properties.
Moist heat preparation A method of cooking in which heat is transferred by water, any water based liquid, or steam. (scalding, poaching, simmering, stewing, braising, boiling, steaming, microwaving)
Dry heat preparation A method of cooking in which heat is transferred by air, radiation, fat, or metal. (baking, roasting, broiling, grilling, barbecuing, frying)
What are the different types of meat? Beef (steers, bulls, heifers and cows, calves); veal (young calves of beef cattle between ages 3 weeks/3 months); lamb and mutton (lamb<14 months; mutton>14 months); pork (young swine)
How long does it take to thaw a frozen turkey? 1 1/2 to 5 days, depending on its weight
Finfish Fresh H2O (lean, fatty); Salt H2O (lean, fatty)
Shellfish Crustacean (crab, crayfish, lobster, shrimp); Mollusk: Bivalve (clam, mussel, oyster, scallop), Univalve: (abalone, conch, snail); Cephalopod (octopus, squid)
Pasteurization A food preservation in which liquids (milk, beer, soups, or juices) are heated to a specified temperature for a certain period of time to destroy most microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and molds) that could cause disease, spoilage, undesired fermentation
Ultra-pasteurization A process in which a milk product is heated about 145°F, but below 280°F for .01 to 15 seconds.
Homogenization A mechanical process that breaks up the fat globules in milk into much smaller globules that do not clump together and are permentantly dispersed in a very fine emulation.
Evaporation Refers to the process of heating liquid to the boiling point to remove water as vapor.
How should cheese be stored? Can it be frozen? Most cheese should be refrigerated; some can even be frozen. Process cheese precuts can be stored in a cool, preferably dark, cupboard until ready for use, refrigeration more effectively retains desirable qualities.
Roots Carrots, beets, turnips, radishes
Bulbs Onions, garlic
Stems Celery, asparagus
Leaves Spinach, lettuce
Seeds Beans, corns, peas
Flowers Broccoli, cauliflower
Simple fruits Develop from one flower and include drupes, pomes, and citrus fruits. (oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, kumquats, and mandarins)
Aggregate fruits Develop from several ovaries in one flower. They include blackberries, raspberries, and strawberries.
Multiple fruits Develop from a cluster of several flowers. Pineapples and figs are two examples.
Stock The foundational thin liquid of many soups, produced when meat, poultry, seafood, and/or their bones, or vegetables are reduced (simmered) and strained.
White stock The flavored liquid obtained by simmering the bones of beef, veal, chicken, or pork.
Brown stock The stock resulting from browning bones and/or meat prior to simmering them.
Husk The touch outer covering protecting the grain (not normally consumed but are sometimes processed into fiber supplements)
Bran The hard outer covering just under the husk that protects the grains soft endosperm (fiber and minerals-contains protein, phosphorus, thiamine, other B vitamins, and some fat)
Endosperm The largest part of the grain, containing all of the grain's starch (carbohydrates)
Germ The smallest portion of the grain, and the embryo for a future plant (rich in fat, incomplete protein)
Created by: jae_moore