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Animal Nutrition

Final Exam

Gestation length for one sow parity about 114 days
Lactation length for one sow parity about 12 to 28 days
When does sow return to heat? about 4 to 7 days
When are sows weaned? day 135
When is a sow re-bred? Day 140
When does a sow farrow? day 114
What is the traditional method of housing pregnant sows on commercial swine farms? Farrowing stalls
When are market hogs weaned? day 21
How long are market hogs nursed? about 21 days
When do market hogs go to the finisher? day 63
When are market hogs put out on the market? day 163
How long does finishing take for market hogs? about 100 days
How long are market hogs in the nursery? about 100 days
What is the swine life cycle nutrition? nursery pig --> starter pig --> grower pig --> finisher pig --> developing gilt --> mature breeder --> lactating sow and nursing piglets
What is a current big issue in the swine industry? feed prices
What are common energy feedstuffs used in swine diets? energy --> corn grain(most common) barley, wheat, rye, oats, by-product feeds, and roots/tubers
What are common protein feedstuffs used in swine diets? animal products(meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, fish meal, whey) and plant products(soybean meal[most common], roasted soybeans, and peanuts
What are special concerns for swine diet formulations? Essential amino acids: phenylalanine+tyrosine, argninine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine+cystine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine
What are requirements for breeding swine? sows are farrowed twice yearly, sow needs to receive maintenance energy in addition to nutrients needed for fetal pig development, and feed intake is restricted(body condition is monitored)
When breeding swine, how long is a sow's length of lactation? 1 to 3 weeks
Is nutrient demand high or low for sows that are lactating? high
For lactating sows, should feed intake be high or low Feed intake can be low since body stores can be depleted(fat and muscle)
What are nutrition requirements for pre-weaning? milk is given 1-2 weeks, creep feed is given which is high energy(fats and carbs), high protein(balance for AA), high in milk products(very digestible), minerals and vitamins
What are nutrition requirements for segregated and early weaning and nursery pigs? milk-based replacers and dry feeds, creep-like(pre-starter) feeds(high nutrient density[fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins])
How much do segregated early weaning and nursery pigs weigh? 7-12 lbs live weight
Why is early weaning advantageous? improves sow rebreeding and improves total feed effciency
How much do starter pigs weigh? 12-40 lbs
What is the stage(phase) feeding? pre-starter is 7-12 lb; nursery and starter is 12-40 lbs
How much do pigs weigh during growing period? 40-110 lbs
What is the typical diet for grower pigs? corn-soy diet
What is the most limiting amino acid when feeding grower pigs? lysine; make sure to balance for lysine
How much do finisher pigs weigh? 110-270 lbs
What is the diet for finisher pigs? corn-soy diet
What is the most limiting amino acid when feeding finisher pigs? lysine
What does Paylean(ractopamine) do in regard to finisher pigs? repartitioning agent(converts fat to leanness), increases ADG, and increases lysine requirements
What is approximate sheep population in the U.S? about 5.3 million
What is approximate goat population in the U.S? about 2.8 million
What is the trend in sheep numbers in VA? sheep numbers are increasing in VA
What is the trend in sheep numbers in U.S? sheep numbers are declining in U.S.
What is the trend for goat numbers in the U.S? Goat numbers increasing in U.S. over past decade
What is wool? animal fiber made of 19 different amino acids combined into a keratin-like protein linked in polypeptide chains
What should you consider when creating grazing programs for sheep? behavioral and physiological considerations, susceptible to parasites, build fencing around sheep in pasture to keep track of sheep and to keep predators out of pasture
What type of diet do horses typically have? Forage based diet(90%)
What type of diet do cattle typically have? forage based (70%)
What type of diet do sheep typically have? forage based (60%)
What type of diet do goats typically have? browse(60%) (browse is made of leaves, twigs, cacti, and shrubs)
What are advantages to companion grazing with sheep? reduces parasitic infestation, each will eat around the others' droppings, and it assures more uniform use of pasture
Which sheep in the maturity cycle should get the best pasture? weaned lambs should get the best pasture; mom ewes can tolerate lower quality forage
What should lambs be weaned when in drought or overstocked conditions? Wean lambs early and put them in a drylot
What are the 2 productive functions are most important for all food animal production systems? reproduction and growth
What are the components of reproduction in sheep? In estrus or not(postpartum anestrous, seasonality of estrous activity) and Ovulation rate(determines potential number of lambs born)
What are the practical aspects of energy in ewes? energy(most important component in sheep diets; body weight changes with physiological state) and BCS(evaluated by palpating loin/spine)
What are requirements in ewe feeding programs for maintenance/early gestation? average quality pasture or hay, no grain supplementation, always mineral supplementation; goal is to maintain, if not gain, body condition for upcoming pregnancy or lactation
During what time in the sheep's life cycle has the highest nutrient requirements? early lactation is the time of highest nutrient requirements in the entire production cycle; nursing twins takes lots of feed
What happens to ewes when they are producing milk for nursing twins? they lose weight since they cannot eat enough feed to support this level of production
Late gestation requirements increase with greater lambing rate. T/F? True
Urinary calculi imbalance of Ca:P ratio; add limestone to diet
Polioencephalomalcia created by thiamine deficiency; IV and IM injections of thiamine hydrochloride
Enterotoxemia(over-eating disease) overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens Types C and D in lower GIT; vaccinate
Pregnancy Disease(Ketosis) energy deficiency
Selenium Deficiency mineral supplements should contain up to 90 ppm Se, which is max allowed by FDA
White Muscle Disease Se/Vitamin E deficiency
Copper Toxicity Cu accumulates in liver --> kills liver cells
What are special illness considerations with sheep? Selenium Deficiency, White Muscle Disease, Copper Toxicity
Horses are non-ruminant herbivores. T/F? True
What kind of diet is important for all classes of horses? forage based diet
What is a horse's digestive system designed to do? utilize fiber from forage via microbial fermentation in hindgut
How much feed do horses need to intake on a daily basis? need 2% to 3% of their body weight in feed each day; 22 to 33 lb/day
How much of a horse's diet should be forage? at least 1.5% of diet should be forage; 16.5 lb/day
Are horses able to be maintained on forage alone? Most horses can but it also depends on forage analysis; trace mineral block is not enough
How should horses be fed? free choice access to forage is best; they eat small, frequent meals(graze approx 14-16 hr per day)
How should you design a horse feeding program? Determine bodyweight; determine BCS and CNS(Cresty Neck Score), determine energy and nutrient requirements using NRC; determine forage type and nutrient content, and determine concentrate type, nutrient content & feeding reqs
How do you determine body weight(BW) of horse? if scales not present, then calculate/estimate using tape; measure length from point of shoulder to point of buttocks; measure girth length circumference(squared)
What are the levels of BCS for horses? <4 (underweight), 4</=BCS<7(moderate); 7</=BCS<8(overweight); BCS>/=8(obese)
What is Cresty Neck Scoring(CNS)? score of amount of fat deposited along ridge of neck; scale of 0 to 5(0 is lean while 5 is very fat); does not consider fatness of rest of body
What does cresty neck and fat patches lead to? insulin resistance which then leads to laminitis
What do you do to determine energy and nutrient requirements? first, meet maintenance energy and nutrient requirements, avoid undesirable effects, and deficiencies and toxicities; second, meet additional requirements depending on class of horse
What are the 6 classes of nutrients? carbohydrates(fuel for work); protein(build cells and tissue); fat/lipids(fuel for work, synthesis of compounds); vitamins(growth and maintenance); minerals(maintain body functions); water(needed for all body functions)
What are the 2 main divisions of carbohydrates? Nonstructural carbs(NSC) and structural carbs
What components make up NSC? sucrose, fructose, starch, glucose, and fructan
What part of horse's GIT are NSCs broken down? small intestine(they are hydrolyzed to glucose); rapidly fermented in hindgut
What part of horse's GIT are structural carbs broken down? hindgut(slowly fermented, VFAs produced)
What components make up structural carbs? hemicellulose and cellulose
What are sources of NSC? starch(cereal grains, legumes); sugar and fructan(cool season grasses)
What are disorders and diseases associated with high NSC diets? obesity, laminitis, insulin resistance(IR), equine metabolic syndrome(EMS), PPID(if IR), PPSM/EPSM, RER, DOD/OCD, and colic
How much more energy dense is fat than carbohydrates or protein? 2.25 times
Fat is not highly digestible and cannot be absorbed in small intestine. T/F? False
What are some sources of fat? vegetable oils, rice bran, and marine sources
Vitamins are essential to normal metabolism. T/F? True
What are different types of deficiency diseases that horses can get? fat soluble vitamin and water soluble deficiencies
What fat soluble vitamin deficiencies can occur? vitamins A(vision), D(Ca homeostasis), E(antioxidant), and K(vascular fxn, blood clotting, bone metabolism)
What water soluble vitamin deficiencies can occur? vitamins C(antioxidant), B complex(thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, folate, B12, B6, pantothenic acid)
What is the main category of energy that horses take from? digestible energy(DE)
What are the primary energy sources that horses use? carbohydrates and fats
What are the different NRC classifications of horses? maintenance, exercise/work, reproduction, lactation, and growth
What are the different classifications of horses at maintenance level? minimum("easy keeper"), average, and elevated("hard keeper")
What are the different classifications of horse exercise levels? light(1 to 3 hr/week); moderate(3-5 hr/week); heavy(4-5 hr, add 15% gallop), very heavy(1 hr speed work, 6-12 hr mod. work)
What is the classification of stallions? breeding and non-breeding
what is the classification of pregnant mares? <5 months, 5 months, 6 months, 7 months, 8 months, 9 months, 10 months, 11 months
What is classification of lactating mares? Month after foaling: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th
What is classification of young, growing horses? 4 months, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months(none, light, moderate exercise), 24 exercises(none to very heavy)
How do you determine forage type and quality? visual assessment and chemical analysis of pasture and hay
Many horses owners select grain or concentrate before considering hay quality. T/F? False
How to collect horse pasture samples? clip forage at grazing height(part horse consumer, usually top 4 to 6 inches); take samples form 12-20 random sites; place sample in labeled plastic bag; freeze sample overnight; final sample wgt: 500g
How do you collect hay samples? take core hay sample(it is best/most accurate sample); sample 20% of hay bales; final sample wgt: 500g
There is no variation of nutrients between hay bales. T/F? False
How do you select concentrate feeds? You select feeds based on palatability and physical properties; ingredients and their nutrient content; forage quality/availability
What is the purpose of feed? energy(calories), vitamins, minerals, and protein
What are the different types of feed concentrates? commercial grain/forage based concentrates(these are best for equine since they are formulated and balanced); whole grains(not balanced); supplements(prior to use, complete diet should be evaluated)
What are good rules of thumb when feeding concentrates to horses? feed at least 2 times/day; feed no more than 5 lbs/feeding; feed at regular intervals; make gradual changes; feed by wgt not by volume; generally feed 2 hr before & after exercise
How do you increase fiber in the horse's diet? use high fiber forage replacements
What are some high fiber forage replacements? beet pulp, alfalfa pellets/cubes, bagged forage products, soyhull pellets
What are some common nutritional related health concerns for horses? colic, gastric ulcers, obesity/laminitis/IR/EMS
How do you prevent colic in horses? feed adequate quantity and quality forage, have good feeding management practices, and ensure water intake
How do you prevent gastric ulcers in horses? do not restrict forage intake; avoid high starch meals, feed alfalfa hay, use Ulcergard/Gastrogard
How do you prevent obesity/laminitis/IR/ EMS in horses? avoid feeding high sugar forages & high starch feeds, exercise, energy(calorie) reduction
Created by: David55900



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