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Biology Final Exam

subspecies The rare Alabama Beach Mouse is distinct at which rank?
Tennessee In what state was the snail darter discovered as the Endangered Species Act was being established?
yes Is the snail darter still alive?
US Fish and Wildlife Service What U.S. agency maintains the endangered species list?
rhizobium; legume family What genus of bacteria is a mutualist and nitrogen fixer w/in root nodules of plants in the ____________ family?
branch In simple terms, the meaning of the word “clade” is ????
shared ancestry The nodes shown on a cladogram represent what?
flatworm What is an example of an animal with a solid body?
coelem The proper term for the body cavity such as found in humans, is the ________________.
Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Pollution, Population growth of people, Overharvesting What does E.O. Wilson’s “HIPPO” represent?
silent spring R. Carson is famous for what book she wrote?
change to three domains above kingdoms: archaebacteria, eubacteria, eukaryotes How have ribosomes (knowledge of) transformed our system of classification as compared to the Linnaean Hierarchy?
Carl Woese Who studied ribosomes and established the three Domains?
animals Of the 1.5 – 2 million species named, most are _________________.
Genus (Canis) Ex. Canis lupus Within a species name is the name of what taxon immediately above the rank of species?
microbes, insects, spiders, birds, squirrels, - diverse forms of life Who lives on tree trunks?
biodiversity includes ecosystem diversity and genetic diversity within a species Why is it wrong to restrict the meaning of biodiversity to simply the diversity of species?
Ernst Mayr The “Darwin” of the 20th Century was_______________
alopatric Which mode requires geographic isolation (separation)?
land bridge Beringia was an important __________ between North America and Asia.
mule An example of a post-zygotic barrier?
animals that have different habitats/different breeding times such as lions and tigers An example of a pre-zygotic barrier?
endosymbiosis, heteroptrophic The origin of eukaryotic cell mitochondria billions of years ago was from __________________ with __________________ bacteria.
no, naturalization is a term that applies to exotic species that are brought over and introduced to America Can a plant endemic to Alabama cedar glades, be naturalized in Alabama cedar glades?
African lion Are there any exotic species that are not naturalized?
forest of the Red Hills What is the habitat of Alabama’s red hills salamander?
nitrogenase The enzyme that performs nitrogen fixation?
oxygen Nitrogenase is inhibited by what gas?
rock Phosphorus comes out of ______
air Nitrogen comes out of _________
dead bodies both nitrogen and phosphorus come out of _________
inorganic phosphate Caffeine, Cocaine, LSD, Morphine, Nicotine are all ______________ (type of chemical where nitrogen is key)
The form on nitrogen assimilated by plants and animals differs markedly; however in both plants and animals phosphorus is assimilated (absorbed) as ___________.
mutualistic, fungi Mycorrhizae are __________ associations between plant roots and _____________.
feeding Trophic levels can refer to ________ levels as in a food chain.
taxonomy study of biodiversity
groups taxa/taxon means _________
phylogenetics study of evolutionary relationships
systematics phylogenetic classification
Carolus Linnaeus 1750 hierarchy still in use Categories/Ranks: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species [=Genus + specific name]
Kingdom group of related phyla
Phylum group of related classes
Species group of populations capable of interbreeding [the only taxon that actually exists in nature]
9 how many major phyla in the taxon Animalia?
sponges w/out tissues; often asymmetrical bodies; a “colony” of cells; All other Animal Phyla are Eumetazoans - animals w/tissues, i.e. groups of specific cell types performing specific functions
cnidarians hydra, jellyfish, coral; Radial symmetry; Mouth, no anus
flatworms planaria, tapeworms; Mouth, no anus
nematodes, roundworms mouth & anus
coelom Animals w/body cavity
Arthropods Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans, all w/jointed legs
Annelids leaches, earthworms, all w/repeating segments & bristles
Mollusks snails, clams, squid w/ mantle & foot
Echinoderms starfish, sea urchins w/spiny skin
Chordates most w/ backbones, all w/pharyngeal slits, & tail
Tardigrades water bears
Eukaryota, Archaea, Bacteria Carl Woese erected which 3 Domains based on differences in ribosomes?
Cladistics method to determine evolutionary relationships
Cladogram a branching diagram
clade a branch, or a group of branches
branch origins (nodes) points of shared ancestry
species “a kind” of organism
morphological species concept By form (appearance); Used for asexual species [ex. many plants, some animals (ex. rotifers)]
biological species concept By ability to interbreed & produce fertile offspring in nature
Ernst Mayr Incorporated Mendelian Genetics with Darwinian evolution
allopatric speciation w/ geographic isolation; Separated populations diverge genetically as natural selection acts independently on each
sympatric speciation Occurs without geographic isolation. Common in plants Involves hybridization & polyploidy (inheriting multiple sets of chromosomes). Polyploid formation overcomes hybrid sterility
The 2 sets of chromosomes aren’t homologous & meiosis fails why are hybrids sterile?
Hybrid polyploids can overcome sterility –Ex. Fern hybrids
subspecies populations geographically isolated & genetically distinct from primary species
endangered species act Provides Legal protection for species & subspecies
Future of Life E. O. Wilson's book about biodiversity
Diversity of genes within a species; Diversity of species; Variety of ecosystems components of biodiversity
ecosystem a level of biodiversity where a community of organisms interacts with the environment
producers Photosynthetic organisms
consumers Heterotrophic organisms
Exotic from a foreign place, i.e. alien
Native not introduced by man
Endemic found nowhere else
Naturalized Exotics that self propagate in nature; +4,500 species in U.S.
Invasive Naturalized pests
symbiosis one species lives in or on another
parasitism, mutualism, commensalism 3 forms of symbiosis
parasitism Ticks on a bird
mutualism living together w/ mutual benefit; clownfish w/ anemone
commensalism one species benefits, the other neither benefitted nor harmed; a fern perched on a tree
rhizobium performs nitrogen fixation (energy demanding)
rhyzobium Legumes (beans) feed _____________ exchange for NH4+
Mycorrhizae Fungi and Roots combine into a dual organism
mycology study of fungi
fungi "myco”
roots rhizae
hyphae Fungi consist of these filaments
decomposition Where does fungus get phosphate?
90% % of plants form mycorrhizae
1°production amount of light energy converted to chemical bond energy by plants
energy flow mapped by Food Chains and Food Webs that show “feeding relationships”
10% % of the energy is transferred to the next trophic level
life history Series of events from birth through reproduction to death
Opportunistic life history r-selected species
Equilibriallife history K-selected species
Created by: pace_sauce



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