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earth sci Q sem 1

Name and describe the 4 major areas of Earth Science.? Meteorology, the study of the air that surrounds Earth Astronomy, the study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere Oceanography, the study of Earth’s oceans Geology; the study of materials that make up Earth
What are the steps of the scientific method? The steps of the scientific method include defining the problem, stating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, analyzing the results of the test, and drawing conclusions
What are the variables in an experiment? The independent variable is the factor that is manipulated by the experimenter. The dependent variable is the variable that can change if the independent variable changes.
What is a control and why are they used? The control is the factor in an experiment that does not change. It is used to show that the results are actually a result of the condition being tested
What are the basic details of each of Earth's spheres? Atmosphere: Earth's air Hydrosphere: Earth's water Biosphere: Earth's living things Geosphere: Earth's rigid outershell
How are latitude and longitude similar and different? Latitude and longitude are both units used to measure the distance in degrees around the Earth. However, latitude is the distance in degrees north or south of the equator, whereas longitude is the distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian.
How a topographic map works  and know how they show the elevation? A topographic map shows the changes in elevation with contour lines, which are lines that connect points of equal elevation, and with contour intervals, which is the difference between two side-by-side contour lines.
Name and describe the 3 parts of the atom.  What are their masses? What are their charges? Protons: same mass as neutrons and are positively charged. Neutrons:same mass as protons and are neutral (no electrical charge). Electrons: no mass and are negatively charged.
What are the differences between covalent and ionic bonds? A covalent bond is the attraction of two atoms for a shared pair of electrons that holds the atoms together, whereas an ionic bond is the attractive force between two ions with opposite charge.
What are the states of matter and how does matter change states? The states of matter are liquids, gases, plasma, and solids. Matter changes states by either cooling down or heating up
What is a crystalline structure? A crystalline structure is a regular geometric pattern of particles in most solids, which gives a solid a definite shape and volume. 

What is the cause of a solar eclipse? A solar eclipse is caused when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth, and blocks our view of the Sun.
What is the cause of a lunar eclipse? A lunar eclipse is caused when the Moon passes through Earth’s shadow.
why do we have seasons? Earth is tilted: as it makes its yearly orbit around the Sun the surface of Earth is unevenly heated by the Sun. At one point, the northern hemisphere is pointed towards the Sun, while at another point the northern hemisphere is tipped away from the sun.
How does retrograde motion support earth NOT being the center of the solar system? because in a Sun-centered model the inner planets move faster in their orbits than the outer planets do. Thus, as Earth bypasses a slower-moving outer planet, it seems that the outer planet temporarily moves backward in the sky (retrograde motion).
What are the characteristics of the terrestrial planets? The main characteristics of the terrestrial planets are having few moons, a molten, metal core, a solid, rocky surface, and topological feature such as valleys, craters, and volcanoes.
How are terrestrial planets similar and how are they different? Some similarities are that each planet has a solid surface and a molten, metal core. Some differences are that the atmosphere of Earth and Mercury are composed mostly of O2 whereas the atmosphere are of Mars and Venus are both composed mostly of CO2.
Is there evidence of water on Mars? It is possible that the atmosphere was once much warmer, thicker, and richer in carbon dioxide and the Martian surface features include dried river and lake beds. These both would have been a result of water once being present.
What are the characteristics of the gas planets? The characteristics of the gas planets are being large in size, being composed of fluids, having a small, solid core, being very cold on the surface, and having many satellites and ring systems.
How are gas planets similar and how are they different? Some similarities include that the major component of all of the gas planets’ atmospheres is hydrogen and that all of the gas planets possess multiple moons and rings.
How is Pluto different than the gas giants? Pluto is different than the gas giants as it is much smaller in size than any of the gas giants, has a solid surface, is composed of half ice and half rock, and its atmosphere is composed of methane and nitrogen.
According to your book, how were the planets formed? tiny grains of material condensed together ending up with a planetismals, which then made up larger planetismals. These larger planetismals had greater gravity and attracted more and more gas, dust, and smaller planetismals, finally resulting in a planet.
What the layers of the sun’s atmosphere? Photosphere: surface andVisible layer where most light is emitted from, 5800 K. Chromosphere: middle and Red 30,000 K. Corona (top layer), Extends several million km above surface, low density gas Bluish-white, 1-2 Million K.
What are the different spectra emitted from stars? Why are they different? Continuous spectra is produced by a hot solid, liquid, or a cloud of gas-has no breaks. emission spectra is produced by a cold cloud of gas-has bright lines. an absorption spectra is produced by a hot cloud of gas-with a series of dark bands.
What types of stars are on the main sequence? What types of stars are not? The types of stars that are on the main sequence are Giant stars, White Dwarfs, and Supergiant Stars. The types of stars that are not on the main sequence are average stars, planetary nebulas, massive stars, and supernovas.
What are all of the steps of the sun’s life cycle? Stellar nebula- average star-Red giant-white dwarf-planetary nebula-black hole
How did scientists mapped the Milky Way? Scientists mapped the Milky Way by using radio waves. Radio waves are able to penetrate the interstellar gas and dust without being scattered or absorbed.
What are the characteristics of the Milky Way? The Milky Way is a large barred spiral galaxy comprising an estimated 200 billion stars arrayed in the form of a disk, with a central elliptical bulge (some 12,000 light-years in diameter) of closely packed stars lying in the direction of Sagittarius.
Where is our solar system located in the Milky Way? Roughly halfway between the center and the edge of the visible disk of the galaxy
What do the stars in a galaxy tell you about galactic formation? Because old stars are the only components of the halo and bulge of the galaxy suggest that these parts of the galaxy formed first, before the disk that contains only younger sta
Is there any evidence for other galaxies beyond the Milky Way? Many objects had been observed scattered throughout the sky by astronomers, some with spiral shapes maybe these shapes are star clusters or nebulae within the Milky Way or they are distant galaxies, as large as the Milky Way.
What is the evidence that supports an expanding universe. Recent observation on the change of the expansion rate of the universe shows that the rate is speeding up. With this increase of speed, an expanding universe seems to be the most probable fate of the universe.
What are the different types of fossils? Original preservation (insects in amber) • All the soft and hard parts remain Altered hard parts (petrified wood) • Minerals replace hard parts • Soft parts are gone Molds • Outline of what once lived Casts • Filled in mold • 3D model
How did scientists determine the age of the earth? Radiometric dating found the oldest rocks on earth 3.8-4 billion years old. Rocks 4.1-4.1 billion years old been found using Zircon. Meteorites have been dated at 4.5-4.7 billion years old. The oldest rocks on the moon are 4.6 billion years old.
Why did scientists believe the early Earth was really hot.? Radioactive decay in the core Previous impact from asteroids and meteorites so size and temp of Earth increased Gravitational contraction
What is outgassing and how did it affect the Earth’s atmosphere? Outgassing is a process in which large amounts of gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, are vented during volcanic eruptions in addition to lava. Geologists believe that outgassing formed early Earth’s atmosphere.
How did oxygen first produced on the Earth? Oxygen was first produced on Earth by microscopic organisms called cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria used photosynthesis to produce nutrients, thus creating oxygen as a byproduct.
What evidence is there of oxygen in the early atmosphere? Fossilized mats of cyanobacteria called stromatolites and Iron-banded formations containing iron oxide called red beds are both evidence of oxygen
How was the composition of the early atmosphere different than the present atmosphere? Early atmosphere had lots of hydrogen and helium whereas present atmosphere has lots of oxygen and nitrogen.
What are the different ways that minerals form? From stuff dissolved in liquid (evaporation and hot water) or from the cooling of molten material
What are the characteristics used to identify a mineral? Color, streak, luster, hardness, cleavage, fracture, specific density, and crystals.
What are the differences between extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks? Extrusive igneous rocks are are fine-grained igneous rocks that cool quickly on Earth’s surface, while intrusive igneous rocks are coarse-grained igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth’s surface
What are mafic and felsic rocks? Mafic rocks are iron-rich, dark-colored igenous rocks and Felsic rocks are silica-rich, light-colored rocks.
how do igneous rocks form different sized crystals? The cooling rate of lava creates the different sized crystals. If it cools slowly then the crystals formed are large, but if it cools quickly then the crystals formed are small.
What are the three types of clastic sedimentary rocks? Coarse-Grained Clastics, consisting of gravel-sized rock and mineral fragments Medium-Grained Clastics, consisting of sand-sized rock and mineral fragments Fine-Grained Clastics, consisting of silt-sized grains and clay-sized particles
How do sedimentary rocks form? By being cemented together by either high pressure or chemically
What are the main reasons that rocks are classified as igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary? Each classification of rock is formed differently and appears different than the other.
What are the details of the rock cycle? The rock cycle is a model that describes the formation, breakdown, and reformation of a rock as a result of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic processes.
Created by: it'smevalorie