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BIO 120 Chapter 4


Carbon- backbone of all organic molecules, 4 bonds (covalent)
Tetrahedron- 4 single bonds with other atoms
Double tetrahedron- 2 carbon atoms bonded together
Flat shape- 2 carbons double bonded
Hydrocarbon- molecule with only carbon and hydrogen, stores energy
4 variations in carbon skeleton- length, branching, double bonds, rings
Linear (Length) skeleton- carbons arranged in a row
Branching skeleton- carbons branched off other carbon
Double bond skeleton- double bonds between carbon, reduces hydrogen
Ring skeleton- carbon arranged in a circle with hydrogen surrounding
Isomer- allows carbon molecules to be even more diverse
3 types of isomers in organic compounds- enantiomers, geometric isomers, structural isomers
Enantiomers- mirror images, L isomer and D isomer, amino acids
Geometric (cis-trans) isomers- same atoms, order, and covalent relationships, differ in spatial relationships
Structural isomers- molecules with same atoms in different order
Saturated fat shape- straight line
Unsaturated fat shape- bend
Trans fat shape- small kink
digression- structure effects function
Functional group molecular groups that attach to carbon backbone to make molecules very diverse
Hydroxyl group: (-OH), polar, alcohols
Carbonyl group: (-- C=O), sugars, ketones and aldehydes
Ketones- carbonyl group is bonded to interior carbon of carbon skeleton
Aldehyde- carbon group is bonded to terminal on the end of carbon backbone
Carboxyl group: (-COOH), carboxylic acids (organic), proton source, lactic, citric, and acetic acid
Amino group: (-NH2), acts as a base, accept protons
Sulfhydryl group: (-SH), two sulfhydryl groups bond together covalently and form disulfide bond
Phosphate group: (-OPO3^2- ), component of phospholipids and important to many chemical reactions
Methyl group: (-CH3), not reactive, effects shape of hormones and expression of genes
Created by: mr_spangler