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PCS Liv Env

Chapter 11 Vocabulary (2016 - 17)

genetics scientific study of heredity
true-breeding allowed to self-pollinate producing identical offsprings
trait a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another (example: seed color, plant height)
hybrids the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
gene sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and determines a trait
alleles different forms of a gene
segregation separation of alleles during gamete formation
gametes sex cells
probability likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett square diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
homozygous two identical alleles for a particular trait (example: TT or tt)
heterozygous two different alleles for a particular trait (example: Tt)
phenotype physical characteristic (you can see this - example: tall, short, blue, green)
genotype genetic makeup (can't see this - example: TT or Tt)
independent assortment independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
incomplete dominance one allele is not completely dominant over another (example: red roses bred with white roses = pink roses)
codominance both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism (example: AB blood)
multiple alleles three or more alleles of the same gene
polygenic traits traits controlled by two or more genes
homologous two sets of chromosomes (same number of chromosomes come from each parent)
diploid cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes; two sets (di = two)
haploid cell contains only a single set of chromosomes therefore a single set of genes; one set
meoisis process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes
tetrad structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiousis
crossing-over homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
gene map diagram showing the relative locations of each know gene on a particular chromosome
dominant traits expressed (you can see)
reessive traits hidden
Law of Probability used to predict results if large number of organisms are involved
somatic cells body cells
Created by: Ms.Sala